In the Quran, 25 prophets are mentioned, however, only 12 of them are called Rasul (Messenger). 46:35 of the Quran tells us about the Ulu l-‘Azm, it is widely held that the term refers to the five Rasul’s who were fully rejected by their people and made to have strong determination, they are Prophet Noah (as), Ibrahim (as), Musa (as), Jesus (as), and Muhammad (saw). In 1902, MGA claimed to be greater than Esa (as), he also claimed to be the second coming of all of these messengers.
The 12 Rasul’s that are mentioned in the Quran are as follows: Noah (as), Ibrahim (as), Ishmael (as)(see 19:54), Joseph (40:34), Moses (as)(See 19:51), Jonah (as) (see 37:139), David (as)(See 2:251-253), Shu‘aib (as)(see 26:176-179), Salih (as)(see 7:77), Elias (as)(see 37:123), Hud (as)(see 26:123-126), Jesus (as)(See 2:87, 5:111, 61:6, 4:157, 57:27, 2:254) and Muhammad (saw)(called a messenger countless times). Simply, every messenger is a prophet [Nabi], but not every Prophet is a Rasool [Messenger]. All Rasools were Nabi but all Nabis were not Rasool’s. Adam (as) was never called a Rasul by Allah, since Adam (as) wasn’t sent to any people, nor was he opposed and almost killed. There are authentic hadith report that there were roughly 300 Rasul’s and 124,000 prophets. Thus, Rasul and Nabi cannot be the same or interchangeable, since in 3-4 verse of the Quran, some are called, “messengers and prophets”, thus, if they meant the same thing, it would be improper grammar (See 19:54). 33:40 of the Quran also proves that Messengers are different than prophets, since Allah calls Muhammad (Saw) a messenger and the ender (sealer) of prophets, thus, ending the chain of messengers and prophets. 22:52 also differentiates between Messengers and Prophets, if they really meant the same, again, the Quranic grammar would be in question.
In the Quran, Chapter 72:26-28, Allah clearly says that he doesn’t reveal the secrets of the unseen to anyone, only a messenger of his. Allah did not include Nabi’s into this statement, thus, only Rasul’s (Messengers) get knowledge of the unseen, whereas Prophets (Nabi’s) do not. This is the closest that the Quran comes to talking about law-bearing vs. non-law-bearing prophets. However, Ahmadi’s don’t believe this. Ahmadi’s believe that Rasul=Nabi and vice versa. Why do they believe this? Since MGA said so in “Correction of an Error” . MGA doesn’t seem to have said this before 1901, or after. Remember, in the Barahin-i-Ahmadiyya, MGA was calling himself a Rasul, however, he wasn’t being fully clear in terms of his beliefs on this specific topic until 20 years later. Yasir Qadhi tells us that there were a minority group of scholars who did in-fact write that Rasul=Nabi, however, he didn’t give the reference.
Prophets are accepted, whereas Messengers are initially wholly rejected and their people are given harsh punishment by Allah. Messengers are treated as liars (see 15:80 and see 23:44), messengers are called crazy and madmen (see 54:9), messengers are mocked (See 13:32), those who abuse the messengers will feel a terrible chastisement (see 9:61). A Messenger is also called “a bearer of glad tidings and a warner has indeed come to you (see 5:19)”. In 40:78, Allah tells us that he hasn’t revealed all of the messengers that he sent to us. In 17:15, Allah says that he never punishes a people before he sends a messenger.
12 Rasul’s (Messengers) mentioned in the Quran
The 12 Rasul’s that are mentioned in the Quran are as follows: Noah (as), Ibrahim (as), Ishmael (as)(see 19:54), Joseph (40:34), Moses (as)(See 19:51), Jonah (as) (see 37:139), David (as)(See 2:251-253), Shu‘aib (as)(see 26:176-179), Salih (as)(see 7:77), Elias (as)(see 37:123), Hus (as) (see 26:123-126), Jesus (as)(See 2:87, 5:111, 61:6, 4:157, 57:27, 2:254) and Muhammad (saw)(called a messenger countless times).
Why were the angels called Messengers?
Why are some humans called Messenger?
72:26-27 from quran.com
72:26—[He is] Knower of the unseen, and He does not disclose His [knowledge of the] unseen to anyone
72:27–Except whom He has approved of messengers, and indeed, He sends before each messenger and behind him observers
In fact, in “Correction of an Error” (1901), MGA quoted 72:26 and 72:27 as he argued that he was not only a Nabi but also a Messenger (See pages 6, 8 and 11).
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