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Who is the British Military Officer Captain Montague William Douglas?

Captain Montague William Douglas also known as M.W. Douglas, District Magistrate, District Gurdaspur in 1897.   Lt. Col Montagu William Douglas CSI, CIE. (1863 – February 1957) was a British soldier and colonial administrator in India. As the Assistant District Commissioner in the Punjab, he investigated the attempted murder allegation made by Henry Martyn Clark against Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, the founder of the Ahmadiyya movement. Ahmad later declared him to be the “Pilate of our time”, superior to the original. In his later life he was a noted advocate of the Oxfordian theory of Shakespeare authorship and was president of the Shakespeare Fellowship for many years.  In 1939, he met with the Ahmadi mullah JD Shams and even presided on a Jalsa in the UK, hence he proved that he colluded with MGA to exonerate him.  In 1897, he was a captain in the British Military as well as a judge, in fact, all British officers doubled as corrupt Judges.

He was born to Edward Douglas, (1831–1867) and Annie Arbuthnot, (b. 1831). In February 1884 he joined the 1st Battalion, North Staffordshire Regiment, switching to the Indian army in 1887. He was promoted to captain in 1895.

In 1891, Douglas married Helen Mary Isabelle Downer (b. 1863). They had three children, Edward Montagu Douglas (b. 1891), Major Archibald Stair Montagu Douglas, MM, (1897–1974),[1] and Helen Elizabeth Douglas (b. 1893).[2][3]


In 1897, having been appointed assistant district commissioner in the Punjab, Douglas was required to investigate the allegations of Henry Martyn Clark against Mirza Ghulam Ahmad. Clark, a Christian missionary, had been approached by a youth named Abdul Hamid, who claimed that Ahmad had sent him to kill Clark. Douglas found Hamid’s claims to be implausible, and that there was evidence that Hamid had been coached. He had also repeatedly changed and even retracted his story. Douglas dismissed the charges. Even after more than forty years he vividly remembered the case and its details. He wrote to J. D. Shams, an Ahmadiyya missionary in London on 29 July 1939, “… the evidence was false and thus I acquitted Mirza Ghulam Ahmad”.[4] The aftermath was presented by Ahmad’s supporters as a triumph, and as evidence of Ahmad’s divine mission.[5] Subsequently, Ahmad compared Douglas favourably with Pontius Pilate, declaring him to be a man of much superior character, stating,

“”””In my opinion, Captain Douglas outshines Pilate in imparting judgment fearlessly and in showing determination and steadfastness … Pilate showed cowardice due to fear of the High Priest and the Elders, and acted in a cowardly manner. But Captain Douglas showed no sign of weakness … Those who are blessed with honour from above do not hanker after worldly honours. This commendable courtesy by the ‘Pilate’ of our time shall be remembered by all my followers when I am gone. He shall be remembered till the end of the world with love and respect.””””[6][7]

In his book Kitab ul Baryyah (An Account of Exoneration) Mirza Ghulam Ahmad has narrated the details of the case.[8]


Later career and retirement

Douglas was appointed Deputy Commissioner in 1899, and was promoted to Major on 6 February 1902.[9] He was on the executive committee for the Coronation Durbar at Delhi in 1903. From 1910-1913 he was Deputy Commissioner of the Lylpur District. He then served as Chief Commissioner of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands from 1913–1920.[10][11]

Douglas was honoured as Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire (CIE) in 1903 and as Companion of the Order of the Star of India (CSI) in 1919.

In his retirement he was an advocate of Oxfordian theory of Shakespeare authorship and wrote The Earl of Oxford as “Shakespeare”; an outline of the case (1931).[12] In 1928 he became president of The Shakespeare Fellowship, after the death of its founder George Greenwood. He held the post until 1945. Douglas advocated a “group theory” of Shakespeare authorship with Oxford as the “master mind”.[13] In Lord Oxford and the Shakespeare Group (1952) he expanded his theory, asserting that Oxford’s fellow-contributors were Francis Bacon, Christopher Marlowe, the Earl of Derby, John Lyly and Robert Greene.[14] According to James S. Shapiro Douglas also believed that “Queen Elizabeth had entrusted Oxford to oversee a propaganda department that would produce patriotic plays and pamphlets”.[15]

In his later life he also painted and was among amateurs exhibited at the Royal Academy.


  1.  Biographical history of Gonville and Caius College Ernest Stewart Roberts, Edward John Gross – 1948 p169 “Douglas, Archibald Stair Montagu: son of Lieut. -Colonel Montagu William Douglas, CI.E., of Port Blair, Andaman Islands; and Helen Mary ..”
  2. ^ The Douglas Archives
  3. ^ Portraits in the India Office Library and Records p63 India Office Library and Records, Pauline Rohatgi – 1983 “Douglas, Montagu William (1863–1957) Lieut -Colonel. Deputy Commissioner, Punjab 1910-13 FL seated in Delhi Planning Committee group. Photo 206 x 271mm “
  4. ^ Letter dated 29 July 1939 to J D Shams
  5. ^ Muhammad Zafrulla Khan, Ahmadiyyat: the renaissance of Islam, Tabshir Publications, 1978, p.189.
  6. ^ Tadhkirat-ush-Shahadatain, Ruhani Khaza’in, vol. 20, pp. 30-41.
  7. ^ Tadh-Kiratushaha-Datain online
  8. ^ Kitab ul Baryyah
  9. ^ “No. 27428”The London Gazette. 25 April 1902. p. 2795.
  10. ^ List of Rulers Provinces British India
  11. ^ David P. Henige, Colonial governors from the fifteenth century to the present, 1970, p.84
  12. ^ H. N. Gibson, The Shakespeare Claimants: A Critical Survey of the Four Principal Theories Concerning the Authorship of the Shakespearean Plays, Taylor & Francis, 1962, p.73.
  13. ^ R. C. Churchill, Shakespeare and His Betters: A History and a Criticism of the Attempts Which Have Been Made to Prove That Shakespeare’s Works Were Written by Others, Max Reinhardt, London, 1938, p. 51
  14. ^ Schoenbaum, Sam, Shakespeare’s Lives, Oxford University Press, 1991, p.435.
  15. ^ James Shapiro, Contested Will: Who Wrote Shakespeare?, Faber & Faber, 2011, p.216.


Links and Related Essays

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Pictures with JD Shams from 1939

Captain M.W. Douglas, District Magistrate, District Gurdaspur received Abdul Hameed and saved MGA

Captain M.W. Douglas, District Magistrate, District Gurdaspur was given a serious court case vs. MGA in 1897.  However, since MGA was above the law in British-India, since his father Mirza Ghulam Murtaza helped to kill the mutineers of 1857, MGA was given respite even when he was totally guilty.  Dr. Clarke had initially filed the case in Amritsar, where he lived, however, the courts told him that he was out of jurisdiction, the case was thus transferred to Gurdaspur.  This is the famous case of Abdul Hameed who was a nephew of the famous Ahmadi mullah, Burhan ud Din.  We found this testimony in MGA’s book,. “kitab ul Barriya” (1897), in a Lahori-Ahmadi translation, pages 142-143.

Captain Douglas’ initial comments

9th August 1897

To: Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, son of Mirza Ghulam Murtaza, Caste Mughal, resident of Qadian, sub-division Batala, District Gurdaspur.

Whereas we have been informed by the honourable Magistrate, District Amritsar, and this information is supported by the statements of Dr. Martyn Clarke and Abdul Hameed recorded by the respected officer and sent to us, that you have incited Abdul Hameed to kill Dr. Martyn
Clarke. Consequently there is apprehension that you are about to commit breach of the peace or about to perform an act which is likely to cause breach of the peace. Consequently you are commanded through this Order to present yourself on Tuesday 10th August 1897 during Court hours before the District Magistrate at Batala and explain the reason why you should not be required to deposit a personal surety of one thousand Rupees as penalty, with an undertaking of maintenance of public peace for a period of one year, and why a surety document written by two sureties for Rupees one thousand per surety as penalty be not required to be deposited.
Issued today, dated 9th August 1897, under our signature and seal of the Court.

Signed: District Magistrate, Gurdaspur.
No: 4. Summons to the defendant Under Section 152, Collection of Criminal Procedure Code In the court of Captain Douglas, District Magistrate

To: Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, son of Mirza Ghulam Murtaza, caste Mughal, resident of Qadian Mughlan, sub-division Batala, District Gurdaspur.

Your presence is essential in order to make reply to the accusation under Section 107 Criminal Procedure Code. Hence you are ordered through this document to present yourself in person or through a duly authorised attorney or as the case may be, at Batala, before the District Magistrate on 10th August 1897. Be strictly enjoined of this.

Signed: Magistrate, District Gurdaspur.

Links and Related Essays

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J. Archibald Douglas also refuted Nicholas Notovitch

We have written extensively about the lies of Nicholas Notovitch here:  We wanted to add a refutation by J. Archibald Douglas.

The refutation by J. Archibald Douglas

  1. Archibald Douglas, Professor at Government College in Agra, India, took a three-month vacation from the college and retraced Notovitch’s steps at the Himis monastery. He published an account of his journey in The Nineteenth Century (June 1895), the bulk of which reproduced an interview with the chief lama of the monastery. The lama said he had been chief lama for 15 years, which means he would have been the chief lama during Notovitch’s alleged visit. The lama asserted that during these 15 years, no European with a broken leg had ever sought refuge at the monastery.
    When asked if he was aware of any book in any Buddhist monastery in Tibet pertaining to the life of Issa, he said: “I have never heard of [a manuscript] which mentions the name of Issa, and it is my firm and honest belief that none such exists. I have inquired of our principal Lamas in other monasteries of Tibet, and they are not acquainted with any books or manuscripts which mention the name of Issa.”[16] When portions of Notovitch’s book were read to the lama, he responded, “Lies, lies, lies, nothing but lies!”[17]
    The interview was written down and witnessed by the lama, Douglas, and the interpreter, and on June 3, 1895, was stamped with the official seal of the lama. The credibility of The Life of Saint Issa was unquestionably damaged by Douglas’ investigation.

—16 J. Archibald Douglas, “The Chief Lama of Himis on the Alleged ‘Unknown Life of Christ'” The Nineteenth Century (April 1896) 667-77, cited by Prophet, 36-37.

—17 Goodspeed, 13.

Links and Related Essays

#ahmadiyya #ahmadiyyatrueislam #ahmadiapartheid #Ahmadiyyat #rabwah #qadian #meetthekhalifa #muslimsforpeace #ahmadiyyafactcheckblog #nolifewithoutkhalifa #AhmadiMosqueattack #AhmadiyyaPersecution #Mosqueattack #trueislam #atifmian
#yuzasaf #rozabal #jesusinindia



Who is Begum Akbar Jehan Abdullah?

Akbar Jehan Abdullah (1907 – 11 July 2000) was an Indian Kashmiri politician. The wife of Abdullah Sheikh, three-time Chief Minister of Jammu and Kashmir, she twice served as a Member of India Parliament. Akbar Jehan was the daughter of Michael Harry [HarryNedou aka Sheikh Ahmed Hussain, of Slovak and British descent, he was the eldest son of the European owner of an Indian hotel chain that included Nedous Hotel in Srinagar, and his Kashmiri wife Mirjan. Nedou was himself the proprietor of a hotel at the tourist resort of Gulmarg. She married Abdullah in 1933. In 1936, she became a Qadiani-Ahmadi as evidenced by the scan in the below from the AL-Fazl of Jan 21st, 1936. In the highlighted area of the scanned AL-Fazl, it says, it clearly says “wife of sheikh abdullah sahib riayasat (state) Kashmir. She is the mother of the Kashmiri politician Farooq Abdullah, who succeeded his father Abdullah Sheikh as J&K chief minister in 1982, and grandmother of Omar Abdullah. In Akbar Jehan’s father’s lifetime, the Nedous’ hotels in Lahore, Gulmarg, and Srinagar retained their reputations as classy, plush, and magnificent havens in colonial India. Akbar Jehan’s father, the stoic looking, stocky, and thick-set, though not short, Michael Henry (Harry) Nedou took over the management of the restful hotel in Gulmarg, exquisitely and intimately described by MM Kaye in her whodunit novel, ‘Death in Kashmir’, from his father. Several people have testified to his proverbial philanthropy, beneficence, and kindness. Mother tells me that his advocacy of the nationalist movement in Kashmir, the stirrings of which began in the 1930s, encouraged Akbar Jehan to relinquish a life of affluence and repose to marry the rebel from Soura, Sheikh Mohammad Abdullah. Michael Henry (Harry) Nedou “spent his time helping the poor, built houses for them, and saved people wrongly convicted from jail and twice from the gallows”

Her Mother
Akbar Jehan’s mother, Mir Jan, respectfully called Rani Jee by family, friends, and acquaintances was an indomitable Gujjar woman, who has an imperturbable expression in all the pictures I have seen of her. The impression that I get from her pictures is that she must have been a phlegmatic woman, secure in the knowledge that she was propertied and wealthy, not requiring anyone’s good offices to lead a comfortable life. She and her siblings were the proud owners of sprawling acres of magnificent land in Gulmarg, a resort which found a prominent place on the international map in that late 1800s and early 1900s through the endeavors of Michael Adam and Jessie Maria Nedou.

Akbar Jehan’s father’s family, the ‘Nedous’, had emigrated from Dubrovnik, Croatian city on the Dalmatian coast of the Adriatic Sea, to Lahore in the 1800s. Croatia is currently an independent country. From 1815 to 1918, it was part of the Austrian Empire, and from 1918 to 1991, it was part of Yugoslavia. I found the naturalisation certificate of Michael Adam Nedou, Akbar Jehan’s paternal grandfather, in the depleted family archive. According to the certificate, signed by CU Aitchinson, Lieutenant Governor of the Punjab and its dependencies, on February 28, 1887, he conferred upon hotelier, Michael Adam Nedou, the rights and privileges of naturalisation. In the ‘memorial’ presented to CU Aitchinson, Michael Adam Nedou explained that he was born in Ragusa, Austria (Ragusa is the Italian and Latin name for Dubrovnik on the Dalmatian Coast); he was of Slovak nationality, and had been in British India for the past 25 years. At the time of the presentation of the ‘memorial’, Michael Adam Nedou was 50 years old, settled in Lahore, and sought to be granted the rights and privileges of a British subject of Queen Victoria, “of Great Britain and Ireland, and Empress of India, within her Majesty’s said Indian Territories,” in compliance with Act XXX of 1852 (‘Certificate of Naturalisation’).

The lithe, imaginative, and vivacious young woman who later became his wife, Jessie Maria, made his acquaintance while visiting her brother, George, who was a Sea Captain in the British Royal Navy. That acquaintance, rather enchantingly, metamorphosed into love, and the wedding was solemnised soon after their first meeting. Their older son, Michael Henry (Harry) Nedou, Akbar Jehan’s father, according to his birth and baptism certificate, was born in Pune, British India, in 1877. Michael Henry [Harry] Nedou was one of nine children. He was born to Jessie and Michael Adam Nedou after six daughters, an event that was celebrated with much gusto. The birth of the second son, William Arthur Nedou, in 1879, was soon followed by that of the third son and youngest child, Walter Douglas Nedou.

The then grandiose Nedous hotel in Srinagar, which was opened in 1900, boasted a confectionery that, for a long time, had no parallel. The thought of the delectable jams and jellies that we got from the Nedous’ bakery in my childhood makes me drool. Until the decade of the eighties, the Nedous hotel in Srinagar epitomised a rare and appealing excellence, and a flawless execution, which, over the years, deteriorated. It is now, sadly, in a dilapidated state.

In Akbar Jehan’s father’s lifetime, the Nedous’ hotels in Lahore, Gulmarg, and Srinagar retained their reputations as classy, plush, and magnificent havens in colonial India. Akbar Jehan’s father, the stoic looking, stocky, and thick-set, though not short, Michael Henry (Harry) Nedou took over the management of the restful hotel in Gulmarg, exquisitely and intimately described by MM Kaye in her whodunit novel, ‘Death in Kashmir’, from his father. Several people have testified to his proverbial philanthropy, beneficence, and kindness. Mother tells me that his advocacy of the nationalist movement in Kashmir, the stirrings of which began in the 1930s, encouraged Akbar Jehan to relinquish a life of affluence and repose to marry the rebel from Soura, Sheikh Mohammad Abdullah. Michael Henry (Harry) Nedou “spent his time helping the poor, built houses for them, and saved people wrongly convicted from jail and twice from the gallows”

The writer Tariq Ali claims that Akbar Jehan was previously married in 1928 to an Arab Karam Shah who disappeared after a Calcutta newspaper Liberty reported that he was actually T. E. Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia)[66] a British Intelligence officer. He claims that Akbar Jehan was divorced by her first husband in 1929.

She gets officially divorced. (See Mubashir Hassan (18 July 2008), “The Nedous and Lawrence of Arabia”The Nation (Pakistan), archived from the original on 9 January 2009, retrieved 22 July 2008)

She marries Shaikh Abdullah.

She becomes an Ahmadi.

Scan evidence

She had the distinction of being the first President of Jammu and Kashmir Red Cross Society.

She served as Chairman of State Level Committee of International Year of Women, 1975 and President of all India Family Welfare Association, State Branch, 1976 and All India Women’s Conference, State Branch in 1977.

She served as a member of 6th and 8th Lok Sabha.  

She represented Kashmir’s Srinagar and Anantnag constituencies, respectively.

Jehan Abdullah died on 11 July 2000 in Srinagar at the age of 93.

Links and Related Essay’s

Tariq Ali (2003): The Clash of Fundamentalism. Verso Books. London. ISBN 978 1 85984 457 1

Heroes of Kashmir : Molvi Muhammad Abdullah Vakil

Revisiting AATISH-E-CHINAR: The Biography of Sheikh Mohammad Abdullah

The story of the owners of Nedous Lahore

Mubashir Hassan (18 July 2008), “The Nedous and Lawrence of Arabia”The Nation (Pakistan), archived from the original on 9 January 2009, retrieved 22 July 2008




#yuzasaf #jesusinindia #



Who is Haji Mohi-ud-din Miskin?

Haji Mohi-ud-Din Miskin (d. Srinagar, 1921) also Ghulam Mohiuddin was a Kashmiri poet who also wrote a history of KashmirTarikh-i-Kabir (completed 1892, published 1900).[1][2][3][4] He is the first, after Mirza Ghulam Ahmad himself (1899), to record identification of the Roza Bal tomb with Jesus: “Others believe that it is [the] tomb of a great Prophet who is no other than Hazrat Isa [Jesus], the Spirit of God.” (1902).

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#yuzasaf #rozabal #jesusinindia

Who is Mir Sayyid Naseeruddin?

He is buried next to the famous Yuz Asaf in Srinagar, Kashmir, India. He was a shia-Muslim saint, in 2019, Kashmir is roughly 25% Shia. Mir Sayyid Naseeruddin, a descendant of Imam Musa-Raza, 8th Imam of the Shia Muslims whose shrine is in Mashhad. His name is also written as Syed Nasir-ud-Din.

Links and Related Essays

Heroes of Kashmir : Molvi Muhammad Abdullah Vakil

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#yuzasaf #rozabal #jesusinindia

Roza Bal and Yuz Asaf

The Roza Bal or Rouza Bal or Rozabal is a shrine located in the Khanyar quarter in downtown area of Srinagar in Kashmir, India. The word roza means tomb, the word bal mean place.[1][2][3][4][5] Locals believe a sage is buried here, Yuzasaf or Yuz Asaf (or Youza Asouph), alongside another Muslim holy man, Mir Sayyid Naseeruddin.

The shrine was relatively unknown until the founder of the Ahmadiyya movement, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, claimed in 1899 that it is actually the tomb of Jesus.[6] This view is maintained by Ahmadis today, though it is rejected by the local Sunni caretakers of the shrine, one of whom said “the theory that Jesus is buried anywhere on the face of the earth is blasphemous to Islam.”[7]


The structure stands in front of a Muslim cemetery.[8] It consists of a low rectangular building on a raised platform, surrounded by railings at the front and an entry. Within is a shrine to Youza Asouph.[9] The building also houses the burial tomb of a Shia Muslim saint, Mir Sayyid Naseeruddin, a descendant of Imam Musa-Raza, 8th Imam of the Shia Muslims whose shrine is in Mashhad. The structure was previously maintained by the local community, but is now maintained by a board of directors consisting of Sunni Muslims.[10] According to Kashmiri writer Fida Hassnain, a supporter of Ahmadi beliefs, the tomb contains a rock carving that is said to show feet bearing crucifixion wounds and the body is buried according to what Hassnain considers are the Jewish tradition of directions and not according to the Islamic tradition.[11] Academic reception of Hassnain’s works has been highly critical – academics dismissing these claims includes Günter GrönboldWilhelm SchneemelcherNorbert KlattPer Beskow, and Gerald O’Collins.[12]


Buddhist and Hindu period[edit]

There is no record of the shrine during Kashmir’s Buddhist period, nor during the Kashmir Sultanate (1346–1586) when many Buddhist temples were converted into mosques, such as the Shankaracharya Temple or “Throne of Solomon.”[13]

Muhammad Dedamari, 1747[edit]

The shrine is first mentioned in the Waqi’at-i-Kashmir (Story of Kashmir, published 1747), also known as the Tarikh Azami (History by Azam)[14] by the Khwaja Muhammad Azam Didamari, a local Srinagar Sufi writer. Muhammed Azam states that the tomb is of a foreign prophet and prince, Yuzasuf, or in modern local Kashimiri transcription Youza Asouph. The name may derive from the Urdu “Yuzasaf” in the legend of Balauhar and Yuzasaf, Yuzasaf being a name for Gautama Buddha.[15] Yuzasaf occurs as a spelling in the Rasail Ikhwan al-Safa of the Brethren of Purity and other sources.[16] David Marshall Lang (1960) notes that the connection of the Buddhist Yuzasaf with Kashmir in part results from a printing error in the Bombay Arabic edition referencing the legend of the Wisdom of Balahvar which makes its hero prince Yuzasaf die in “Kashmir” (Arabic: كشمير) by confusion with Kushinara (Pali: كوشينر), the traditional place of the original Buddha’s death.[17][18]

Court case 1770[edit]

A court case was brought mentioning the shrine in 1184AH/1770AD:[19]

The Seal of The Justice of Islam Mullah Fazil 1184-A.H. Verdict: Now this Court, after obtaining evidence, concludes that during the reign of Raja Gopadatta, who built and repaired many temples, especially the Throne of Solomon, Yuz Asaph came to the Valley. Prince by descent, he was pious and saintly and had given up earthly pursuits. He spent all his time in prayers and meditation. The people of Kashmir, having become idolators, after the great flood of Noah, the God Almighty, sent Yuz Asaph as a prophet to the people of Kashmir. He proclaimed oneness of God till he passed away. Yuz‐Asaph was buried at Khanyar on the banks of the lake and his shrine is known as Roza Bal. In the year 871 A.H. Syed Nasir-ud-Din, a descendant of Imam Musa-Raza, was also buried besides the grave of Yuz Asaph. Orders – Since the shrine is visited by devotees, both high and common, and since the applicant, Rehman Khan, is the hereditary custodian of the shrine, it is ordered that he be entitled to receive the offerings made at the shrine as before, and no one else shall have any right to such offerings. Given under our hand, 11th Jamad-ud-sani, 1184 A.H” (translation by Fida Hassnain 1988)

Hassnain’s translation follows Ghulam Ahmad in dividing the name of Yuzasaf, found in the Bilhawar and Yuzasaf tradition about Gautama Buddha, into two syllables, “Yuz Asaf.”[20] Yuzasaf, Arabic Yūdhasaf or Būdhasaf, is derived from the Sanskrit Bodhisattva. The Sanskrit word was changed to Bodisav in Persian texts in the 6th or 7th century, then to Budhasaf or Yudasaf in an 8th-century Arabic document (from Arabic initial “b” ﺑ to “y” ﻳ by duplication of a dot in handwriting).[21]

Indo-Pakistan War, 1965[edit]

In the aftermath of the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 and continuing Hindu-Muslim and Muslim-Muslim tensions and incidents the Ziarat Rozabal was desecrated and the grave dug up on 27 October 1965. Indian columnist Praveen Swami (2006) identified the culprits as a “stay-back cell” of Pakistani operatives, but this is not confirmed by other sources.[22]

Ahmadiyya claims regarding the shrine[edit]

Mirza Ghulam Ahmad[edit]

The founder of Ahmadiyyat, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, inferring from the Verse 23:50 of the Quran, believed that the only occasion in the life of Jesus, son of Mary, that his life was seriously threatened, when an attempt was made to kill him by the cross. The Quran saying that “We…prepared an abode for them in an elevated part of the earth, being a place of quiet and security, and watered with running springs” ;,[23] Ahmad says, may very fittingly apply to the Valley of Kashmir.[24][25]

In his book Jesus in India he elaborately claimed that Roza Bal was the tomb of Jesus (Urdu 1899, English 1944 مسیح ہندوستان میں Masih Hindustan-mein).[26][27] The book was fully published in 1908, and the first complete English translation in 1944.[27] Ahmad had separately advocated the view that Jesus did not die by crucifixion, but travelled to the Indian subcontinent and died there at age 120.[28][29] Per Beskow states that Ghulam Ahmad separated Yuzasaf into two components Yuz and Asaf, interpreted Yuz as Jesus and Asaf (the Hebrew for gather) as signifying “Jesus the gatherer”.[30]

The Ahmadiyya writer Khwaja Nazir Ahmad‘s Jesus in Heaven on Earth (1952) developed Ghulam Ahmad’s ideas.[31] There are ruins of a Hindu temple near Srinagar where Ghulam Ahmad claimed Jesus had preached.[32] Due to the lack of other western sources, the Ahmadi rely on the 3rd century apocryphal Acts of Thomas and generally post-15th century Muslim sources in their reconstruction of an eastern travel path for Jesus.[33]

J. Gordon Melton states that having assumed the mujaddid (faith renewer) appellation in the 1880s, and having declared himself the Promised Messiah for the Christians, Ghulam Ahmad simply picked up the legend that Jesus had visited India to increase his self-identification with Jesus.[34] Gerald O’Collins states that no historical evidence has been provided to support Ghulam Ahmad’s theory that Jesus died in India.[29] Simon Ross Valentine classifies the theory as a legend and considers the burial of Jesus in Roza Bal a myth in the scale of the legend of Joseph of Arimathea taking the Holy Grail to Britain.[35] Paul C. Pappas states that from a historical perspective, the Ahmadi identification of Yuzasaf with Jesus was derived from legends and documents which include a number of clear historical errors (e.g. confusing the reign of Gondophares) and that “it is almost impossible to identify Yuz Asaf with Jesus”.[36]

Ghulam Ahmad’s theory that Jesus died in India is distinct from the 1894 suggestion of Nicolas Notovitch that Jesus travelled to India in his earlier years (before the start of his ministry) during the unknown years of Jesus and Ghulam Ahmad specifically disagreed with Notovitch.[37] Notovitch’s claims to have found a manuscript about Jesus’ travels to India have been totally discredited by modern scholarship as a hoax.[38] Notovitch later confessed to having fabricated his evidence.[39] Modern scholars generally hold that in general there is no historical basis to substantiate any of the claims of the travels of Jesus to India.[40][41]

20th century[edit]

Khwaja Nazir Ahmad[edit]

After Notovich and Ahmad the next widely noticed text was the 1908 The Aquarian Gospel of Jesus Christ – Transcribed from The Book of God’s Remembrance (Akashic Records), which Levi H. Dowling (1844–1911) claimed he had transcribed from lost “Akashic” records.[42]

Khwaja Nazir Ahmad, an Ahmadi missionary in Woking, developed Ghulam Ahmad’s ideas in the 1940s. He also claimed that Moses was buried at Boot on Mt. Niltoop near Bandipur.[43] His book (1952) contained a translated section of the Ikmal al-din of Shia authority Ibn Babawayh (d. 991, called “as-Saduq”) where Yuzasaf (Ahmad “Yuz Asaf”) is mentioned.

He compared the tree with ‘Bushra’ towards which he used to draw people; the spring with learning, and the birds with the people who sat around him and accepted the religion he preached. Then Yuz Asaf, after roaming about in many cities, reached that country which is called Kashmir. He travelled in it far and wide and stayed there and spent his remaining life there until death overtook him. He left the earthly body and was elevated towards the Light. But before his death, he sent for a disciple of his, Ba’bad (Thomas) by name who used to serve him and was well-versed in all matters. Translation into English from Original Arabic of Ikmal al-din of Ibn Babawayh, republished Khwaja Nazir Ahmad “Jesus in Heaven on earth” 1952 Page 362 (insertion “Thomas” not in original Ghulam Ahmad 1908 translation).

The claim that this text relates to Isa (Jesus) and not Barlaam and Josaphat originates in Ahmad’s earlier 1902 use of the same text. Ahmadiyya claims that this section of the Ikmal al-din of Ibn Babawayh relates to Isa (Jesus) is rejected by Shia Muslims.[44] The Orientalist Max Müller had already translated this section into German (1894) when refuting the claims of Nicolas Notovitch.[45]

Ahmadi websites and print sources cite various local documents and traditions in support of Ghulam Ahmad’s identification of the Srinagar shrine as Jesus tomb. These include:
(1) Islamic versions of the legend of Barlaam and Josaphat, in Arabic Budasaf or Yuzasaf:

(2) Texts mentioning Jesus (Isa)

(3) Local history of Kashmir

  • A 1946 photograph of a single page purporting to be from Tarikh-i-Kashmir, (History of Kashmir) a lost history by Mullah Nadri 1420 AD, used as a source by Haidar Malik (1620s). Khwaja Nazir Ahmad printed this photograph in Jesus in Heaven on Earth (1952)[47] The text in the photograph contains mention of Yuzasaf, but the standard text of the Mullah Nadri traditions transmitted by Haidar Malik contain no mention of Yuzasaf, and no historian cites Tarikh-i-Kashmir as containing a Yuzasaf tradition. The original page, which Ahmad tried to buy in 1946 is now lost, so no tests can be conducted to the age of the document.
  • Waqiat-i-Kashmir of Muhammed Azam Didamari (1747) History of Kashmir, mention of Prince Yuzasaf
  • Official Decree of 1770 court case, – identifying the two saints at the Rozabal as Yuzasaf and Sayyid Naseeruddin.
  • Bagh-i-Sulaiman (The Garden of Solomon) of Mir Saadullah Shahabadi Kashmiri (1780), a history of Kashmir which comments on the other Muslim holy man buried at the Roza Bal shrine, Sayyid Naseeruddin.[48]
  • Wajeesut Tawarikh of Abdul Nabi Khanyari (1857) – History of the Sikh period of Kashmir which mentions the Rozabal as grave of Sayyid Naseeruddin and prince Yuzasaf.
  • Takhat Sulaiman (Throne of Solomon), remains of a temple on hill near Dal Lake in Srinagar, Kashmir
  • Tahrik-i-kabir-Kashmir, of Haji Mohiuddin, (Amritsar, Suraj Prakash Press, 1902) – the first source to mention that some believe the Roza Bal to be the tomb of Jesus (Isa), three years after Mirza Ghulam Ahmad’s identification.[49]

Pappas states that the analysis of any possible combinations of date assignment to Nazir Ahmad’s theory about the travels of Jesus indicates that none of the scenarios can be consistent with the generally accepted historical dates such as the reign of Gondophares, in part because Nazir Ahmad relied on the dating methods used in the court of Zain-ul-Abidin (1423–1474).[50]

Andreas Faber-Kaiser and Holger Kersten[edit]

In 1976 Andreas Faber-Kaiser, a Spanish UFOlogist, and in 1983 Siegfried Obermeier and Holger Kersten, two German writers on esoteric subjects, popularised the subject in Christ died in KashmirChrist in Kashmir and Christ Lived in India respectively.[51] Kersten’s ideas were among various expositions of the theory critiqued by Günter Grönbold in Jesus in Indien. Das Ende einer Legende (Munich, 1985).[52] Wilhelm Schneemelcher a German theologian states that the work of Kersten (which builds on Ahmad and The Aquarian Gospel) is fantasy and has nothing to do with historical research.[53] Gerald O’Collins an Australian Jesuit priest, states that Kersten’s work is simply the repackaging of a legend for consumption by the general public.[29]

The interpretation that the tomb is aligned East-West[clarification needed] is found in the Ahmadi publications, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad’s Kashti Noh[54] and other sources such as Islamic Review 1981 and Review of Religions 1983.[55][56] Ahmadis claim that this is supported by the reference from Ibn Babawayh‘s version of the YuzasifGautama Buddha story in Ikmal al-Din “Then he stretched out his legs and turned his head to the west and his face to the east. He died in this position.”[57][58][59]

Popular media[edit]

Richard Denton wrote and produced a documentary for BBC Four titled Did Jesus Die? in 2004. It is narrated by Bernard Hill and features Elaine PagelsPeter StanfordJohn Dominic CrossanPaula Fredriksen, Father Jerome Murphy-O’ConnorTom Wright, Thierry LaCombe (French Knights Templar conspiracy theorist), Richard AndrewsJames TaborSteve Mason, and Ahmadi editor Abdul Aziz Kashmiri.[60] The documentary explores the survival from the cross theory and, in passing, mentions theories such as a journey to India by Jesus, with a section on the story of Yuz Asaf.[11]

In 2007 Channel 4 showed the documentary The Hidden Story of Jesus presented by Robert Beckford, which included filming inside Roza Bal, and an interview with Fida Hassnain about the shrine and Jesus “Indian connection”.[61] Gerald O’Collins criticised several aspects of the documentary, and stated that Hassnain “showed how he lives in an odd world of fantasy and misinformation.”[62]

Around 2010 the tomb at Roza Bal began to gain popularity among western tourists as the possible tomb of Jesus.[63] According to a 2010 BBC correspondent report, the old story may have been recently promoted by local shopkeepers who “thought it would be good for business”, and its inclusion in the Lonely Planet travel guide to India helped drive the tourist business.[63] The novel The Rozabal Line by Ashwin Sanghi makes reference to the shrine.[64] In 2010, a 53-minute documentary was launched by the Indian film director Rai Yashendra Prasad with the name Roza Bal Shrine of Srinagar.[65]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Ghulām Muhyi’d Dīn Sūfī Kashīr, being a history of Kashmir from the earliest times to our own 1974 – Volume 2 – Page 520 “Bal, in Kashmiri, means a place and is applied to a bank, or a landing place.”
  2. ^ B. N. Mullik – My years with Nehru: Kashmir – Volume 2 1971 – Page 117 “Due to the presence of the Moe-e-Muqaddas on its bank the lake gradually acquired the name Hazratbal (Bal in Kashmiri means lake) and the mosque came to be known as the Hazratbal Mosque. Gradually the present Hazratbal village grew …”
  3. ^ Nigel B. Hankin Hanklyn-janklin: a stranger’s rumble-tumble guide to some words 1997 Page 125 (Although bal means hair in Urdu, in this instance the word is Kashmiri for a place – Hazratbal – the revered place.) HAZRI n Urdu Lit. presence, attendance. In British days the word acquired the meaning to Europeans and those associated with …”
  4. ^ Andrew Wilson The Abode of Snow: Observations on a Journey from Chinese Tibet to … 1875 reprint 1993– Page 343 Bal means a place, and Ash is the satyr of Kashmir traditions.”
  5. ^ Parvéz Dewân Parvéz Dewân’s Jammû, Kashmîr, and Ladâkh: Kashmîr – 2004 Page 175 “Manas means ‘mountain’ and ‘bal’ means ‘lake’ (or even ‘place’). Thus, the …”
  6. ^ J. Gordon Melton The Encyclopedia of Religious Phenomena 2007 “Ahmad specifically repudiated Notovitch on Jesus’ early travels to India, but claimed that Jesus did go there late in His life. The structure identified by Ahmad as Jesus’ resting place is known locally as the Roza Bal (or Rauza Bal).”
  7. ^ Times of India Tomb Raider: Jesus buried in Srinagar? 8 May 2010 “One of the caretakers of the tomb, Mohammad Amin, alleged that they were forced to padlock the shrine … He believed that the theory that Jesus is buried anywhere on the face of the earth is blasphemous to Islam.”
  8. ^ map
  9. ^ J. Gordon Melton The Encyclopedia of Religious Phenomena – Page 337 – 2007 “It stands in front of a Muslim cemetery in the Rozabal area of Khanyar, district of Srinagar, the capital of Kashmir. Inside is a wooden sepulcher surrounded by four recently installed glass walls. The sepulcher is empty, though, and the entombed personage ….”
  10. ^ Three Testaments: Torah, Gospel, and Quran edited by Brian Arthur Brown 2012, ISBN 1442214929 Rowman & Littlefield page 196
  11. Jump up to:a b Wynne-Jones, Jonathan (16 March 2008). “Did Jesus die?”. The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 5 May 2013. Retrieved 25 May 2009.
  12. ^ Mark Bothe Die “Jesus-in-Indien-Legende” – Eine alternative Jesus-Erzählung? – 2011 – Page 30 “1.4.2 Fida Hassnain – Fida M. Hassnain wurde 1924 in Srinagar, Kaschmir, …”
  13. ^ W. Wakefield The Happy Valley: Sketches of Kashmir and Kashmiri 1996 – Page 61 “Sketches of Kashmir and Kashmiri W. Wakefield. 6. 1. Originally a Buddhist temple, like the country, later on it became Mohammedan, and was converted into a mosque; while the presence within it at the present day of this emblem of the worship of Siva, testifies that it has also been utilized by the followers of the Hindu religion.”
  14. ^ Khwaja Muhammad ‘Azam Didamari, Waqi’at-i-Kashmir being an Urdu translation of the Persian MSS Tarikh-i-Kashmir ‘Azmi, translated by Khwaja Hamid Yazdani), Jammu and Kashmir “Islamic” Research Centre, Srinagar, 1998, p. 117.
  15. ^ Per Beskow in The Blackwell Companion to Jesus ed. Delbert Burkett 2011 “Only later did Ahmad’s disciples invent the compromise that Jesus had been twice in India. Ahmad’s primary source is a legend, known in the West as the tale of Barlaam and Josaphat. It was widely read all through the Middle Ages as an edifying… Yuzasaf as the principal character is named in Urdu, is helped on his way by the wise Bilhawar … Ahmad divided Yuzasaf in two: Yuz Asaf. He declared that Yuz signified Jesus (who is not called by that name in any”
  16. ^ The March of India The Contemporary Society for Contemporary Studies Volume 7, No.1 1963 – Page 119 “Ibn Babuya of Qum incorporated an adaptation of it in his treatise, Kitabi Kamal al Din wa Itman … Akbar al Furs wa’l Arab. The authors of Rasail Ikhwan al-Safa refers to Balauhar’s conversation with Budasaf (given here in the form of Yuzasaf). Thus the legend of Sakya Muni Gautam, the Buddha, entered into the religious thought of Islam with results which have not yet been properly assessed by scholars. In the development of Muslim mysticism, India’s contribution is unmistakable.”
  17. ^ John Rippon in Journal of Ecclesiastical History Volume 18, Issue 02, October 1967, pp 247–248, online “In The Wisdom of Balahvar Professor Lang assembled the evidence for the Buddhist origins of the legends of the Christian saints Barlaam and Josephat. He suggested the importance of Arabic intermediaries, showing that confusion of diacritical markings turned Budhasaf (Bodhisattva, the Buddha-to-be) into Yudasaf, Iodasaph, Yuzasaf and Josaphat. By a curious roundabout journey this error reappears in once Buddhist Kashmir where the modern Ahmadiyya Muslims, well known for their Woking mosque, claim that a tomb of Yus Asaf was the tomb of Jesus who died in Kashmir, after having been taken down live from the cross; though though the Bombay Arabic edition of the book Balahvar makes its hero die in Kashmir, by confusion with Kushinara the traditional place of the Buddha’s death.”
  18. ^ Trilok Chandra Majupuria, Indra Majupuria Holy places of Buddhism in Nepal & India: a guide to sacred places-1987 Page 295 “(Kushinara-Pali) (Place of Parinirvana) The Pali name of this town where Buddha entered mahaparinir-vana is Kushinara, while the Sanskrit name for it is Kushinagara, Kushinagri, Kushigrama, Kushigramaka, etc.”
  19. ^ Fida Hassnain, The Fifth Gospel, Dastgir Publications Srinagar, Kashmir, Printed by Leo Printers of Delhi, 1988 Pp. 222–223; confirmed by citation in Mark Bothe Die “Jesus-in-Indien-Legende” – Eine alternative Jesus-Erzählung? 2011 – Page 53.
  20. ^ Per Beskow in The Blackwell Companion to Jesus Delbert Burkett 2011 ISBN 140519362X p463 “During the transmission of the legend, this name underwent several changes: to Budhasaf, Yudasaf, and finally Yuzasaf. In Greek, his name is Ioasaph; in Latin, Josaphat, the name of one of the kings of Israel. Ahmad divided Yuzasaf in two: Yuz Asaf …”
  21. ^ Emmanuel Choisnel Les Parthes et la Route de la soie 2004 Page 202 “Le nom de Josaphat dérive, tout comme son associé Barlaam dans la légende, du mot Bodhisattva. Le terme Bodhisattva passa d’abord en pehlevi, puis en arabe, où il devint Budasaf. Étant donné qu’en arabe le “b” et le “y” ne different que …”
  22. ^ Praveen Swami India, Pakistan and the Secret Jihad: The Covert War in Kashmir 2006 Page 70 “Then, on October 27, Cell members dug up the grave of a Saint interred at the Ziarat Rozabal, a shrine in downtown Srinagar.”
  23. ^ George Sale Trans: “And we appointed the son of Mary, and his mother, for a sign: and we prepared an abode for them in an elevated part of the earth, being a place of quiet and security, and watered with running springs.” [G Sale, page 261, the Quran 23:50][1]
  24. ^ The Quran 23:50, may apply to Kashmir. Book “Ijaz e Ahmadi (Zameema Nazool ul Mahih)”, (p.23) (RK Vol 19, page 127 [2]
  25. ^ The Quran 23:50, may apply to Kashmir. Book ‘Kashti e Noah’ [the Ark of Noah], page 19, (footnote) and page 77 (footnote), Published 5 October 1902. [Ruhani Khazain, Volume 19, p.33]. [3]</ref narration from Muhammad, as recorded in Kanz ul Ummal of Ali Muttaqi, 3/158 , Hadith No. 5955, which says: “Allah revealed this to Jesus; O Jesus keep moving from one place to another lest they know you and tease you.” is also referred to in support of this interpretation of Quran 23:50.
  26. ^ J. Gordon Melton The Encyclopedia of Religious Phenomena 2007 p377 “His tomb has been traced and found in Khanyar Street, Srinagar. This tradition, though attributed to … Ahmad specifically repudiated Notovich on Jesus’ early travels to India, but claimed that Jesus did go there late in His life. The structure identified by Ahmad as Jesus’ resting place is known locally as the Roza Bal (or Rauza Bal).”
  27. Jump up to:a b The publisher’s note (page v) at the beginning of the book states: “Written in 1899, and partly serialized in Review of Religions in 1902 and 1903, the book itself was posthumously published on 20th November 1908.” Jesus in India by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (1 July 2003) ISBN 1853727237
  28. ^ Merriam Webster’s Collegiate Encyclopedia by Mark A. Stevens (Jan 2001) ISBN 0877790175 page 26
  29. Jump up to:a b c Focus on Jesus by Gerald O’Collins and Daniel Kendall (1 September 1998) ISBN 0852443609 Mercer Univ Press pages 169–171
  30. ^ Per Beskow “Mystifications: Jesus in Kasmir” pages 458–475 of The Blackwell Companion to Jesus ed. Delbert Burkett 2011 ISBN 140519362X“Ahmad divided Yuzasaf in two: Yuz Asaf. He declared that Yuz signified Jesus (who is not called by that name in any language) and that Asaf was the Hebrew verb for “gather.” Yuz Asaf would then be “Jesus the Gatherer.”
  31. ^ Mark Bothe Die “Jesus-in-Indien-Legende” – Eine alternative Jesus-Erzählung? -2011 Page 19 “Der wahrscheinlich erste Autor, der diesen Schritt vollzieht, ist Al-Haj Khwaja Nazir Ahmad, Mitglied der AhmadiyyaBewegung, der sein Buch „Jesus in Heaven on Earth“ 1952 als programmatische Untermauerung von Ghulam Ahmads Thesen verfasst.”
  32. ^ Delbert Burkett The Blackwell Companion to Jesus 2011 “This very addition is the origin of the legend of Yuz Asaf’s arrival in Srinagar and of his tomb in Mohalla Khaniyar. Ahmad referred to a Persian inscription on a Hindu temple near the city, which had already then been obliterated, but where Yuz Asaf was said to have been …”
  33. ^ Jesus’ Tomb in India: The Debate on His Death and Resurrection by Paul C. Pappas 1991 ISBN 0895819465 ; page 77: “Because of the absence of any western records of Jesus’ travels from Nisibis and on, the Ahmadis rely on the Acts of Thomas and Muslim sources written primarily since the fifteenth century in their endeavor to trace Jesus’ journey to the East”
  34. ^ Religions of the World: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices Second Edition, ISBN 978-1-59884-203-6 ABC-CLIO page 55
  35. ^ Islam and the Ahmadiyya Jama’at: History, Belief, Practice by Simon Ross Valentine (14 October 2008) Columbia University Press ISBN 0231700946page 28
  36. ^ Jesus’ Tomb in India: The Debate on His Death and Resurrection by Paul C. Pappas 1991 ISBN 0895819465 ; page 155: “Al-Haj Nazir Ahmad’s work Jesus in Heaven on Earth, which constitutes the Ahmadi’s best historical defense of Jesus’ presence in Kashmir as Yuz Asaf, appears to be full of flaws, especially concerning Gondophares‘ reign”, page 100: “The Ahmadi thesis can rest only on eastern legends recorded in oriental works, which for the most part are not reliable, not only because they were written long after the facts, but also because their stories of Yuz Asaf are different and in contradiction”, page 115: “It is almost impossible to identify Yuz Asaf with Jesus”
  37. ^ Jesus in India by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (1 July 2003) ISBN 1853727237pages iv–v
  38. ^ Ehrman, Bart D. (February 2011). “8. Forgeries, Lies, Deceptions, and the Writings of the New Testament. Modern Forgeries, Lies, and Deceptions”Forged: Writing in the Name of God—Why the Bible’s Authors Are Not Who We Think They Are (EPUB)|format= requires |url= (help) (First Edition. EPub ed.). New York: HarperCollins e-books. pp. 282–283. ISBN 978-0-06-207863-6. Archived from the original on 15 February 2012. Retrieved 8 September 2011.
  39. ^ Indology, Indomania, and Orientalism by Douglas T. McGetchin (1 January 2010) Fairleigh Dickinson University Press ISBN 083864208X page 133 “Faced with this cross-examination, Notovich confessed to fabricating his evidence.”
  40. ^ All the People in the Bible by Richard R. Losch (1 May 2008) Eerdsmans Press ISBN 0802824544 page 209
  41. ^ Van Voorst, Robert E (2000). Jesus Outside the New Testament: An Introduction to the Ancient Evidence. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 0-8028-4368-9 page 17
  42. ^ J. Gordon Melton The Encyclopedia of Religious Phenomena 2007 Page 337 “The theses articulated by Notovich and Ahmad have generated a variety of writings through the twentieth century, including one relatively famous text, the Aquarian Gospel of Jesus Christ, by Levi Dowling. The idea of the Srinagar site being the grave ofJesus has been severely hindered by antagonism toward the Ahmadiyya movement by mainstream Islam, which has declared the movement heretical. Its most recent exponent is German Holger Kersten……”
  43. ^ Balraj Puri, 5000 years of Kashmir Institute of Jammu and Kashmir Affairs – 1997 – Page 100- “He identified his grave at a village called Boot. He also holds that Jesus Christ, too, came to Kashmir and is buried at Rozabal at Khanyar in Srinagar (Kashmir). It has been authoritatively said by many that Buddha also came to Kashmir to ..”
  44. ^ Al-Shikh-us-Sadiq Abi Ja-far Muhammed Ibn ‘Ali ibn Husain – Kamal-ud-Din vas TmamunNi’mat fi Ashat-ul-Ghaibat was Kaf-ul-Hairet. in Persian Sayyid-us-Sanad Press. 1882
  45. ^ Per Beskow in The Blackwell Companion to Jesus Delbert Burkett – 2011 “Its main propagandist in the West was Andreas Faber-Kaiser with his book Jesus Died in Kashmir (1978), where he … This claim, however,was severely refuted by the famous orientalist Max Müller (1894), who had himself visited Himis and had …”
  46. ^ Mahdi Muntazir Qa’im Jesus: Through the Qur’an and Shi’ite Narrations 2007 – Page 19 “Bihar al-Anwar is a collection of hadiths in Arabic written by Mawla Muhammad Baqir ibn Muhammad Taqi, known as Majlisi the Second, or simply ‘Allamah Majlisi (A.H. 1037–1110). He is one of the most prolific Shi’i writers, and “
  47. ^ Khwaja Nazir Ahmad Jesus in Heaven on Earth (1952) page 393 (11 of pdf) “Photograph of a folio from Tarikh-i-Kashmir (See page 401)”
  48. ^ Mir Saadullah Shahabadi Kashmiri Bagh-i-Sulaiman “Virtuous Sayyid Naseeruddin: The assembly of believers owes its existence to him. His tomb exists in Khanyar in Anzimar. This tomb is significant because of the illuminated grave of a Prophet. All those who visit this sacred place receive aroma of perfumes! It has been narrated that a prince came, abandoned materialistic life, and adopted the path of piety and righteousness. God liked his obedience to Him [and] raised him to the status of an Apostle. He guided the people towards the Truth [and was] a mercy to the Valley (of Kashmir). It is due to this reason that his tomb is famous all over the country.”
  49. ^ “Historical Sources” New Ahmadi website redirecting from in earlier article references
  50. ^ Jesus’ Tomb in India: The Debate on His Death and Resurrection by Paul C. Pappas 1991 ISBN 0895819465 ; page 116 presents a detailed analysis and a table of the possible date assignments to Khwaja Nazir Ahmad‘s story and concludes that none of them can be consistent with the general historical records. Page 116 of Pappas states: “.. as indicated previously, the Kalyugi era is rejected by Ahmad in favor of the Laukika (Haptrakesh-waran) era only because Mullah Ahmad, the fifteenth-century historian of the court of Sultan Zain-ul-Abidin, maintained that this era was used in Kashmir until the conversion of Ratanju (Sultan Sadr-ud-Din) to Islam in 1324 A.D.”
  51. ^ Jesus Lived in India: His Unknown Life Before and After the Crucifixion by Holger Kersten 1981 ISBN 0143028294 Penguin India
  52. ^ Gregorianum Page 258 Pontificia università gregoriana (Rome) “The whole story of how this legend was simply created (without a shred of evidence in its support), spread widely among a gullible public and still finds such latter-day exponents as Holger Kersten is splendidly told by Günt[h]er Grönbold.”
  53. ^ New Testament Apocrypha, Vol. 1: Gospels and Related Writings by Wilhelm Schneemelcher and R. Mcl. Wilson (1 December 1990) ISBN 066422721X page 84. Schneemelcher states that Kersten’s work is based on “fantasy, untruth and ignorance (above all in the linguistic area)”
  54. ^ The Site Map of the Grave attested by a Jewish Scholar Suleman Yousaf Ishaq on 12 June 1899 . Mirza Ghulam Ahmad , Kashti Noah, page 78, in Hebrew. [4]
  55. ^ Review of Religions Ahmadiyya Community Srinagar 1983 Volume 78 – Page 32 “As one reads the legends of Yuz Asaf gathered by the Ahmadiyya from sources as far apart as Iran and Sri Lanka – the conviction … While the stone cover of the tomb is of Muslim date, underneath is a more ancient burial aligned east-west.”
  56. ^ Trevor Drieberg -Jammu and Kashmir: a tourist guide – 1978 Page 99 “To the people of Rozabal, this is the tomb of Yuz Asaf, the name under which Christ is said to have lived in Kashmir. … on the mountain pointing east-west like Jewish graves is called the shrine of the Prophet of the Book by inhabitants of the “
  57. ^ Kammaaluddin wa Tamaamum Ni’ma English translation
  58. ^ The India magazine of her people and culture Volume 3 1982 – Page 57 “there an old tomb, blackened by time, which bears the signs of a recent It. The tomb, as all Jewish tombs t, is oriented East-West. … Yuz Asaf – the oriental historian says – preached to the people in parables and on page 327 p the Kamal-ud-Din, a parable »hich”
  59. ^ Ibn Babuwayah Bombay Arabic edition, Kamal-ud-Din English translation section Kamaaluddin wa Tamaamun Ni’ma p275
  60. ^ Dean R. Eyerly Between Heaven & Hell: The Historical Jesus 2010 Page 106 “In 2004, the BBC aired a special called Did Jesus Die? In this documentary, biblical scholars and scientists concluded “that is certainly a possibility.” “
  61. ^ The Hidden Story of Jesus, c. 1:02:00, as Prof. Fida Hussnain
  62. ^ O’Collins, Gerald (November 2008). “The Hidden Story of Jesus”. New Blackfriars89 (1024): 711. doi:10.1111/j.1741-2005.2008.00244.xJSTOR 43251281.
  63. Jump up to:a b Miller, Sam (27 March 2010). “Tourists flock to ‘Jesus’s tomb’ in Kashmir”. BBC. Retrieved 27 November 2010.
  64. ^ Chhibber, Mini Anthikad (14 September 2010). “Lining up the thrills”The Hindu. Retrieved 23 September 2019.
  65. ^ “Jesus Christ: Was The Savior Buried In Kashmir, India?”International Business Times. 24 December 2013. Retrieved 23 September 2019.

Who is Khwaja Nazir Ahmad (1897–1970)?

Khwaja Nazir Ahmad was the son of the famous Lahori-Ahmadi and MGA’s personal lawyer, Khwaja Kamal ud Din. He wrote the famous, “Jesus in Heaven on Earth” (1952) which was published from the Woking, UK and Lahore, Pakistan. It immediately banned by the governor of the Punjab in April of 1953, the Lahori-Ahmadi’s then won a court case and got it re-published in Pakistan in 1956 (see the foreward). Khwaja Nazir Ahmad’s uncle was Khwaja Jamal ud Din, who worked in Jammu on behalf of the British government from at least1905 to the 1930’s. In the 1990’s, a famous professor (Pappas) accused Ahmadi’s and specifically Khwaja Nazir Ahmad  and his famous book of academic dishonesty. Academic reception of all Ahmadi’s who conducted research works has been highly critical – academics dismissing these claims includes Günter GrönboldWilhelm SchneemelcherNorbert KlattPer Beskow, and Gerald O’Collins.[12]

In 1953, in court, the Lahori-Ahmadi, Khwaja Nazir Ahmad confirms that Allama Muhammad Iqbal joined Ahmadiyya formally in 1897 (See “Dr. Sir Muhammad Iqbal and the Ahmadiyya Movement” by Hafiz Sher Muhammad {A Lahori-Ahmadi}, see page 9).

Links and Related Essays

Heroes of Kashmir : Molvi Muhammad Abdullah Vakil

#ahmadiyya #ahmadiyyatrueislam #ahmadiapartheid #Ahmadiyyat #rabwah #qadian #meetthekhalifa #muslimsforpeace #ahmadiyyafactcheckblog #nolifewithoutkhalifa #AhmadiMosqueattack #AhmadiyyaPersecution #Mosqueattack #trueislam #atifmian
#yuzasaf #rozabal #jesusinindia

In 1909, 1921 and 1929, the Ahmadiyya Khalifa went to Jammu and Kashmir

Before his Khilafat, in 1909, Mirza Basheer ud Din Mahmud Ahmad visited Jammu and Kashmir, he traveled with Mirza Bashir Ahmad, Maulvi Sarwar Shah and Mir Muhammad Ishaq. On 25 June 1921: the Ahmadiyya set out for his tour of Kashmir, which lasted a few months (see al-hakam archives). he had spent 2-3 months, until mid-september, he stayed in Srinagar for a while also, but mostly in Nasnoor. Per the order of the Khalifa, the village name changed from Nasnoor to Asnoor. The Khalifa also celebrated Eid Al-Adha there and led lots of Friday Sermons. The Khalifa also ordered the Ahmadi’s to change their style of dress from a Kashmiri style to a Punjabi style. There were also Ahmadi’s in a nearby village called Koreal, their names were Muhammad Ibrahim Ju, Hasan Ju, and Ghulam Muhammad Ju. Abdul Hayee Sayyed, the interviewer, is also from this village, as well as his father and grandfather. They all seem to be connected, all these “Ju” brothers (5 of them) seem to have become Ahmadi missionaries. Khwaja Ghulam Abdul Ghaffar remembers meeting the Khalifa in 1921, he was only 5 years old and he was ordered to put money in the Khalifa’s hand. MGA’s wife was also there in 1921, as well as Mirza Nasir Ahmad. The Khalifa and his mother visited many small-city/villages, like Abshar, Aharabal, Kausar Nag. There is a famous story, that the Khalifa’s mother also traveled to Kausar Nag with the Khalifa. Khwaja Ghulam Abdul Ghaffar’s father (Khwaja Abdul Qadir Dar) carried MGA’s wife up to Kausar Nag on his shoulders. By 2019, there seem to 4 additional villages in the south area of Kashmir that have a significant Ahmadi population (roughly 10,000 per Ahmadiyya sources), Reashinagar village, also spelled Reshnagri, see the google map page herein, Abdur Rahman Itu is the President of this Ahmadiyya village, which is reported as the largest Ahmadiyya village in Kashmir. Another village is Shurat village in Kulgam. Kulgam is a huge city center, Ahmadi’s seem to be located only in the village of Shurat, however, they may have spread around.There lots of young Ahmadi’s who are serving in the police and are teachers for the government of India, much to the consternation of the local Muslim community. There are 5 Ahmadiyya run schools in South Kashmir, mostly in these small villages. Basharat Ahmed Dar, village head of Asnoor is the official Ahmadiyya representative for his village, he seems to be a descendant of Khwaja Abdul Ghaffar Dar. The last two Ahmadi-only villages are Kani pora and Yari pora, both of these villages fall into to the Kulgam district, not much is known of these small and obscure villages. There is also an Ahmadiyya place of worship just north of Rajouri, its called Mosque Dehri Ralyote. This seems to be a new mosque, built in the past 40 years, we are unsure who had it built. There is also an ahmadi place of worship called Masjid Fazl in Poonch, Kashmir, India. We are unsure how many Ahmadi’s are there in the old town area of Poonch. There is also one Ahmadiyya mosque in Srinagar, Kashmir. There is a companion of MGA who was from Uri, Kashmir, Sayyid Nasir Shah, Sub-
Overseer, Uri, Kashmir, he was the #240th person to accept Ahmadiyya (See Dard), per Ahmadiyya sources, his lineage is unknown, he became an Ahmadi as early as 1891, since he was present at the first ever Jalsa Salana, see #25.

In July of 1929, the Khalifa set out towards Kashmir from Qadian with his entourage. He was on his way to Srinagar, Kashmir. In that time-frame, there was lots of flooding in Srinagar, thus, the Khalifa acquired a house boat and seems to have lived there with his entourage. He would end up staying for 3 months, most likely to avoid the heat of Qadian. The Khalifa began his journey towards Qadian in late September of 1929.  The online archives of the Al-Hakam tell us that on 30 September 1929, the Khalifa delivered a speech in Jammu, Kashmir. He arrived in Qadian the very next day on Oct 1st, 1929. Khwaja Ghulam Abdul Ghaffar remembers that in 1929, in this same era, he traveled from Qadian to Srinagar with his father. Khwaja Ghulam Abdul Ghaffar reports that Nawab Muhammad Ali Khan had bought a house in Srinagar some years earlier close to Sanwar Bagh. Nawab Muhammad Abdullah Khan was also there. Seth Muhammad Ismail owned the Majestic hotel there also, he was also an ahmadi. Since there was no Ahmadiyya mosque in Srinagar in that era, the Khalifa led the prayers at the Majestic Hotel, which seems to be a hotel on a lake a huge houseboat. Khwaja Ghulam Abdul Ghaffar remembers praying there behind the Khalifa. Khwaja Ghulam Abdul Ghaffar  also remembers how there was a huge debate between the Lahori-Ahmadi’s and the Qadiani-Ahmadi’s in Srinagar, from the Qadiani-side it was a new mullah who had just graduated from Qadian with his Maulvi-fazl degree, he debated vs. Syed Mudassir Shah (Lahori-Ahmadi).

The Khalifa sent countless numbers of Ahmadi’s to Kashmir to work as lawyers, newspaper editors and doctors. This was part of the Khalifa’s job as the President of the All-India-Kashmir-Committee.

In 1934, the Khalifa sent Mufti Muhammad Sadiq to investigate further into the tomb of Yuz Asaf. By 2019, there seems to be a very small amount of Ahmadi’s in Jammu, less than 100. However, in Asnoor, even in 2019, there seems to still be an ahmadiyya school there.

Links and Related essays

21-27 June


The groundwork for the research on Jesus’ tomb was laid by the Promised Messiah (as) – Hazrat Mufti Muhammad Sadiq Sahib (ra) then conducted further investigations

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Interview Khwaja Abdul Ghaffar Dar sahib (Part 1 of 2)

#ahmadiyya #ahmadiyyatrueislam #ahmadiapartheid #Ahmadiyyat #rabwah #qadian #meetthekhalifa #muslimsforpeace #ahmadiyyafactcheckblog #nolifewithoutkhalifa #AhmadiMosqueattack #AhmadiyyaPersecution #Mosqueattack #trueislam #atifmian
#yuzasaf #rozabal #jesusinindia



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