Mubahila is not a method that Muslims should use when at differences with each other, in fact, Muslims shouldn’t resort to prayer duels at all. Muhammad (SAW) may have asked for a prayer duel with the Christians of Najran in the final year of his life (see 3:61 of the Quran). However, this incident was about the divinity of Esa (As) and how it was false. This was not an example of what to do when at odds with Muslims. There are no hadith that explain the purport of 3:61.
In 1891, he introduced the concept of Mubahila to any Muslim or Non-Muslim who wished to compete. However, this is not an islamic method of solving any type of dispute. MGA even went as far as claiming that Muhammad (saw) had a Mubahila with the famous Abu Jahl. Read about MGA’s rules on Mubahila in 1889-1890-1891. Read about MGA’s Mubahila with Abdul Haq herein too. By 1899, the British government forbade MGA from doing Mubahila’s in British-India. Nevertheless, he began doing them again in 1905-1907 vs. Sanauallah.
Summary written by a friend of mine
In May 1893, when Mirza Qadiani was engaged in debate with Athem at Amritsar, he was challenged by Molana Abdul Haq Ghaznavi for a Mubahila after the end of his debate with Athem. Mirza replied that he would do it during debate with Athem so Mirza reached the venue on 27 May, 1893 at Eidgah ground Amritsar along-with his 25 close Mullahs. Both parties prayed may Allah,s curse fall upon the liars and may he be humiliated publicly so that masses could see and differentiate between the liars and truthful.
On 5th September,1894 when Athem,s death prophesy failed, Mirza came under sever humiliation. Peoples from all around criticised and insulted him in a harsh manner.
Abdul Haq Ghaznavi published an Ishtihar titled as bad effects of Mubahila on Mirza. Addressing to Mirza Qadiyani he wrote in Ishtihar that you had said after mubahila that whoever is on wrong path would be humiliated and black faced now tell me who is on wrong path and being humiliated . He continued that in few cases predictions of hindu pandits and astronomists proved true but in your case prophesies end up in total failure bringing u the humiliation. The timeline for Athem has elapsed and Athem is well and healthier than before. The humiliation and insult you are suffering Is the result of mubahila between us.
After this Molvi Abdul Haq Ghaznavi asked muslims and Qadianis to state under oath as to who has been under humiliation today. He said that I used to be suffering from various diseases but this year I am 100% healthy and even a single pimple has not appeared on my body and the countless blessings of Allah have been bestowed upon me that i do not like to disclose it. Whereas Mirza is receiving curse from all the country. Mirza.s Mureeds Namely Ismail of Jandiala, Yusuf Khan Sarhadi and Muhammad Saeed cousin of Mirza,s wife have converted to Christianity after Mirza,s prophesy of Athems death failed. in this way Mirza has to suffer physical and moral insult and humiliation.
In extreme anger, Mirza Qadiani replied to the ishtihar addressing AHG as under:-
“O kazzab (Liar )you have seen all this before mubahila,
u have been drowned, u have been burnet, o u the
excrement of stupids tell us when did you come out of
water u were drowned in the waters of regrets like ill fated
man, how can u protect yourself from fire which was
alighted to burn the mischievous so burn there”.
After this Mubahila Mirza has to face countless sufferings and pain which include the sudden death of his 9 year old son Mubarak Ahmed whom Mirza has boasted to be Masleh e Mouud. Mirza himself died of cholera in 1908 at Lahore in the life of Abdul Haq Ghznavi while AHG remained alive quite peacefully and comfortably after 9 years.
(ANJAM E ATHEM, page 21, HUJJATULLAH, page72,HAQIQATUL WAHI,page 240, All by MGAQ)
(Raees e Qadiyan by Rafiq Dilaweri.628-630)
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