Factually, Muslims rarely ever did any Mubahila’s in the entire history of Islam. According to Islamic sources, the event of Mubahala was a meeting between the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a Christian delegation from Najran (present-day Saudi Arabia)(see 3:61 of the Quran). Muhammad (Saw) was not setting an example by this, this was an isolated incident that never came to fruition.
Mirza Ghulam Ahmad took this incident and fraudulently made it a standard. Mubahila could never be done Muslim to Muslim, however, MGA made that a standard of his prophethood also. In fact, in roughly 1891, MGA began doing Mubahila’s with Muslims and not Christians. The very first Mubahila that MGA had was with Abdul Haq, and its tricky. In 1891, via Izala Auham, MGA was claiming that Abdul Haq was asking for a Mubahila, which is not proven at all. By 1893, after MGA lost his debate with Athim, he started claiming that Muslims could solve their religious disputes via Mubahila, and that MGA’s god had specifically told him as such (see the quote in the below, under 1893). This seems to have happened on 27 May, 1893, towards the end of the Athim debate. This seems to be MGA’s first ever Mubahila, and that, vs. a Muslim. By 1899, the British government ordered MGA to stop. It seems like the British could stop the fake prophet from Qadian. Fast forward to 1988, Mirza Tahir Ahmad had been challenging all the Muslims in the world from 1984 to Mubahila, barely anyone noticed or cared. When Zia died, Mirza Tahir Ahmad falsely claimed victory via Mubahila, however, Zia had never accepted any terms of conditions of Mubahila. Bashir Ahmad Misri did and was ignored.
3:61 of the Quran
“”If someone argues with you (O Prophet) over this after the knowledge that has come to you, say (to him), “Come, let us call our sons and your sons, our women and your women, ourselves and yourselves, then (let us) pray and invoke the curse of Allah upon the liars.”
Izala Auham, p. 637
“Let it be clear to the readers that Mr. Abdul Haqq had asked for a mubahila. But I cannot understand how a mubahila could be permissible regarding those matters of difference which do not make either party into a kafir or an unjust one. It is clear from the Holy Quran that in a mubahila each party must believe that the party opposite is a liar, i.e., is deliberately deviating
from the truth, and is not merely mistaken, so that each side is able to say: ‘May the curse of Allah be upon the liars!’ Now if Mr. Abdul Haqq considers me to be a liar due to his wrong
judgment, I do not call him a liar but believe him to be in error, and it is not allowable to curse a Muslim who is merely in error.”
See Essence of Islam, Vol. 3, online english edition
A’ina-e-Kamalat-e-Islam, Ruhani Khaza’in, vol. 5, p. 332
Divine Permission for Mubahalah against Maulavis
“””In the early days I had thought that I was not at liberty to challenge Muslims to a Mubahalah, because Mubahalah involves calling down a curse on each other, and it is not permissible to call down a curse on a Muslim; but my opponents from among the Muslims persist in denouncing
me as a disbeliever, and, under the Islamic dispensation, he who denounces a true Muslim as a disbeliever himself becomes the subject of such denunciation. I have, therefore, been commanded to challenge to a Mubahalah those who denounce me as disbeliever and
possess sons and daughters and are the originators of the denunciations directed at me.”””
In Anjam-E-Athim, MGA writes:
“Ab Abdul Haq ko zaroor poochna chahiey ke uss ka wo mubahla ki barkat ka larka (boy) kahan gaya, kia andar hi andar pait me tahleel (disappear) pa gia ya phir rajaat qahqari(again) ker ke nutfa bun gia” (Roohani Khazain Volume 11, Page 311). English translation is as follows, “Now ask Abdul Haq certainly about that Mubahila he had with me, where are the blessings of a boy, where did it go? Did he disappear ……”
“aur ab tak iss ( Abdul Haq ) ki aurat ke pait sei aik chooha bhi paida na hoa” (Roohani Khazain Volume 11, Page 311). English translation is as follows, And until now, his wife hasn’t even given birth to a mouse.
The British government orders MGA to stop doing Mubahila’s.
MGA and his team of writers offer a Mubahila (prayer duel) challenge to Dr. Alexander Dowie.
Maulvi Sanaullah refuses to get into a Mubahila vs. MGA, since it is un-islamic.
The 2nd Khalifa challenges Syed Ata Ullah Shah Bukhari to a Mubahila.
The Dec-1939 edition of the ROR discusses the origins of Mubahila.
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