Intro
It all started in the late summer of 1902, Mufti Muhammad Sadiq read some newspapers from around the world and read about John Alexander Dowie. He immediately alerted MGA and the rest of the team about the possibility of going viral over a new prayer duel (Mubahila). They immediately wrote an article in the ROR of Sep-1902 and accused Dowie of threatening Muslims with destruction. However, the British Government had legally disallowed MGA’s from doing these prayer duels just 3 years earlier in 1899. Nevertheless, the Mubahila was issued via the ROR of Sep-1902 (see page 337). They also quoted the writings of John Alexander Dowie (but didn’t give references), in these quotes, John Alexander Dowie is predicting hellish conditions for Christians who don’t accept him and all other religions (See “Fulfilment of a Grand Prophecy” by Anwar Mahmood Khan, published in 2000). We found quotes from his magazine, “Leaves of Healing” of Vol. VII, No.5, 26 May 1900 wherein John Alexander Dowie criticized Islam and a quote from Aug-25-1900 (See page 555) wherein John Alexander Dowie is praising Muslims (Ottoman Empire) for fighting off the Greeks. He praised Muslims for not drinking alcohol and eating pork (full quote in the below). In fact, he warned the Christians of the world that Islam was not dead and was strong (see page 555). This specific quote was cut off and even quoted in 2000 by Ahmadi’s in America (see “Fulfilment of a Grand Prophecy” by Anwar Mahmood Khan, page 28).

Nevertheless, in clear words, MGA and his team of writers dared Dowie to have a (See ROR of Sep-1902. They urged Dowie to pray to his God that of MGA vs. John Alexander Dowie, the liar may perish first. They insisted that Dowie publish this prayer (in his newspaper) with the signatures of 1000 men affixed to it. MGA and his team promised to do the same as soon as John Alexander Dowie did it. MGA and his team of writers go on and discredit John Alexander Dowie’s miraculous healing, since Ahmadi’s deny all miracles. In the ROR of Sep-1902, MGA and his team of writers called Jesus (as) as a weak human being (See page 344), MGA was known for insulting the God of the Christians as such. MGA even claimed in Haqiqatul Wahy that the famous Alexander Webb had wrote to him about John Alexander Dowie.

John Alexander Dowie ignored the challenge of MGA, however, he did start throwing jabs at Mirza Ghulam Ahmad for insulting Christianity as such. In the Leaves of Healing of Dec-27-1902 (see page 306), John Alexander Dowie directly addressed MGA and called him a foolish man from India who believes that Jesus died in Kashmir. He calls MGA as ignorant and raging about the false that Jesus died in India (full quote in the below). Meanwhile, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad and his team of writers and editors sent their prayer duel request to over 40 newspapers in America, of which half ran the story, since they hated Dowie. The ROR of Sep-1903 carried most of these newspaper clippings, it also revealed how Mufti Muhammad Sadiq was busy writing letters to newspaper trying to get them to pickup the Dowie prophecy as a story. As a result of this, on Aug-1-1903, see page 474 (Leaves of Healing), John Alexander Dowie attacked the islamic concept of heaven and again on Sep-12-1903, see page 662.

It should be noted that a few of the references that Qadiani-Ahmadi’s give have not been found, for example, (See here also and here page 10). they quote the Leaves of Healing, December 27th, 1903 and this quote:

“Can you imagine me answering to these gnats, and flies. If I were to put my foot on them, I could crush them to Death.”

After 1903, the Ahmadiyya Movement went totally silent on John Alexander Dowie until he died in 1907. In 1902-1904, through the pages of the Leaves of Healing, it become clear that there was financial incompetence at Zion which would lead to an eventual bankruptcy. John Alexander Dowie was a great man who tried to help people, in fact, in 1900, Dowie was arrested 100 times for trying to heal the sick (16:46 time stamp)(similar to Ahmadiyya use of homeopathy). Because of Dowie, this law was changed (See the testimony of Pastor Roberts Liardon herein). Also check out how Robert Pears explains how Dr. Alexander Dowie declared a holy war on Doctor’s, Devil’s and Drug’s in this era. The biggest mistake that John Alexander Dowie made was the creation of Zion, since this caused him to go almost bankrupt and stuck in the courts as his followers objected to his strange financial decisions. In 1904, his wife and children left him, which prompted him to travel to Australia (See Arthur Newcomb, “Anointed of the Lord) and seek to open a new mission, which failed, he then returned to Chicago and suffered a stroke (1905)(See Arthur Newcomb, “Anointed of the Lord) wherein different parts of his body were paralyzed, he still travelled to Mexico(See Arthur Newcomb, “Anointed of the Lord). While absent from Chicago, he was deposed from his business affairs by Wilbur G. Voliva, his chief lieutenant (See R. Harlan, John Alexander Dowie and the Christian Catholic Apostolic Church in Zion, (PhD Dissertation, University of Chicago, 1906). In this era, Dowie repented from his claims of being Elijah-3 and the first Apostle (See Arthur Newcomb, “Anointed of the Lord).

John Alexander Dowie died on March-9-1907 (See Arthur Newcomb, “Anointed of the Lord), the April-1907 edition of the ROR immediately ran to the press and proclaimed victory. The story was covered again in “Haqiqatul Wahy”, which was published on May-15-1907, MGA even drew a caricature of Dowie, this was not included in the english translation. The City of Zion continued to operate, his city was taken over by his chief lieutenant, Wilbur G. Voliva. By the 1930’s Wilbur G. Voliva had lost control of the town altogether. By the 1950’s it seems that they changed their name to the “Christ Community Church” and lost control of Zion. The Ahmadiyya Movement saw this and tried to buy property in Zion, which they finally did after the 2000’s (it took 25 years of planning). As of 2008, the “Christ Community Church” has about 3,000 members in the United States and Canada. Missionary work is conducted in Japan, Philippines, Guyana, Palestine, Indonesia, and the Navajo Nation. Missionary work continues among the African Zionists under the banner of Zion Evangelical Ministries of Africa (ZEMA). ZEMA’s goal is to convert the African Zionists from syncretism to mainstream Christian theology.

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1900

Click to access leaves_of_healing_v7_1900_apr-oct.pdf

https://www.alislam.org/book/fulfilment-grand-prophecy/

The Terrible Danger to Christianity From Mohammedism

As far as my voice can reach, I warn the Christian lands to look out for Islam. It is not the worn-out, effete thing that some people think it to be.

You must have noticed, if you read with care, the fact that when the Greek rebellion broke out lately against the Turkish power, that the Turkish government was able to put in the field a trained, disciplined army which swept these Greeks before it as chaff before the wind.

The Mohammedan army was composed of men of muscle, men of brawn, men of brain; men with arms of precision in their hands, splendidly drilled and equipped, who moved like
machines. They mowed down the poor Greeks and drove them back until Europe had to step in to save them from annihilation.

Why was it that these people were so strong?
Because they did not drink alcohol. Because they did not partake of the deadly drugs which are undermining the Christian nations. Because they did not eat the accursed swine’s flesh, which is responsible for so much disease. Scrofula and cholera, and many other filthy diseases are the consequence of eating that diseased flesh.

I warn the Christian nations of America and Europe. Islam is not dead. Islam is full of power. Although Islam must go, although Mohammedism must be destroyed, remember it will
not be wiped out by the effete Latin Christianity; the power less Greek Christianity ; the worn-out Christianity of those who nominally acknowledge Christ and live as gluttons and drunkards and harlots and whoremongers and oppressors.

Islam is beginning to creep into America through the Mystic Shrine, that filthy and murderous side degree of Free masonry. In that form it has defiled the very highest offices of trust and honor in the Nation.

There is a greater danger than alcohol. A man whose heart is bad, whose head is free from alcohol and nicotine poisons, is much more dangerous a man than a poor drunken sot whom everybody avoids because he is drunken and filthy.

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1902
Review of Religions, Sept. 1902, Vol I, No 9

MGA’s extended letter to Dowie is posted on pages 337-349

“The best way to determine whether Dowie’s God is true or ours, is that Mr. Dowie should stop making prophecies about the destruction of all Muslims. Instead he should keep me alone in his mind and pray that if one of us is fabricating a lie, he should die before the other.”
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1902
http://iapsop.com/archive/materials/leaves_of_healing/leaves_of_healing_v12_1902_oct-1903_apr.pdf

Dowie replied to MGA in December 27, 1902 (see page 306) in the Leaves of Healings:

A Foolish Mohammedan Claim
There is one foolish man in India, a Mohammedan Messiah, who persists in writing to me saying that the body of the Christ is buried at Cashmir, in India, and can be found there.

He never says that he has seen it, but the poor, fanatical and ignorant creature keeps on with the raving that the Christ died in India. The Christ reascended into the heavens at Bethany, and He is there in His Celestial Body.
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1903

Click to access leaves_of_healing_v13_1903_apr-oct.pdf

Aug-1-1903, see page 474

Unbridled Lust Means the Decay of a Race.

Take, for instance, Mohammedanism, where the highest reward is a heaven of harlots.

The Mohammedan who has fought for Mohammed and Allah, and who kills the Christian dog, even though he is killed him self, is promised a Paradise of Lust.

The consequence is, that nations that sin these sins of lust are perishing — rotting out.
The Latin races are rotting out.
The Latin races in Italy, France, and Spain are decaying, because of women and wine.

In Turkey and other lands, where Mohammedanism rules, the ruling classes especially, are rotting.

So it is in America, where there is no real restraint for lust. I believe that one of the things that will be shown to the world, when we make up our first seven years’ statistics, is that the highest birth-rate and the lowest death-rate in the world is in Zion. (Applause.)

Purity and self-restraint does not mean a diminished number of children; it means increased children.

It means more beautiful; more holy and healthy and happy children.
It means the very highest and the sublimest satisfaction; for then your wife is your friend, your sister, your lover, your associate in all that is holiest and best in your life, as my dear wife is.

Then if our darlings pass away they leave beautiful and noble memories and we know where to find them. While they live, they are beautiful in their manhood and their womanhood, and they will impress humanity by their Purity.

God grant it!
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1903
http://iapsop.com/archive/materials/leaves_of_healing/leaves_of_healing_v13_1903_apr-oct.pdf

Sep-12-1903, see page 662

“”Indulgence in Damning Lust the Prize Offered in Mohammedanism and Mormonism.

But with it all came the damning lust; that which enticed, under Mohammed, the tribes of the Koreish to forsake their God and enlist under his banner, namely, that they would have women galore while they lived, and that when they died there would be a host of houris with whom they should dwell in a paradise of damning lust, eating and drinking, and be forever happy, with the happiness of a filthy brute whose highest aspirations never rise higher than its belly.

This was the prize that Mohammed offered, and this is the prize that Mohammedanism still offers.

This was the prize that Joseph Smith and Brigham Young offered.

This is the prize, despite all they say, that still underlies Mohammedanism and Mormonism. and which, by the grace of God, we hope to do something in smashing.

I want them to understand in New York that the suggestion that in founding the City of Zion I received inspiration and help from Mormonism is false, malignant, and diabolical.”””
______________________________________________________________________________________________
1903

It should be noted that a few of the references that Qadiani-Ahmadi’s give have not been found, for example, (See here also and here page 10). they quote the Leaves of Healing, December 27th, 1903 and this quote:

“Can you imagine me answering to these gnats, and flies. If I were to put my foot on them, I could crush them to Death.”
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1903
ROR of Sep

An article is dedicated to Dowie.

During this time, MGA was not well known in America. Despite this, many American newspapers published this challenge which included:

  • The Chicago Inter Ocean, June 28, 1903
  • The Telegraph, July 5, 1903
  • The Literary Digest, June 20, 1903
  • The New York Mail & Express, June 25, 1903
  • The Herald Rochester, June 25, 1903
  • The Record Boston, June 27, 1903
  • The Advertiser Boston, June 25, 1903
  • The Pilot Boston, June 27, 1903
  • The Pathfinder Washington, June 27, 1903
  • The Detroit English News, June 27, 1903
  • The Democratic Chronicle Rochester, June 25, 1903
  • The Burlington Free Press, June 27, 1903
  • The Albany Press, June 25, 1903
  • The Baltimore American, June 28, 1903
  • The Buffalo Times, June 25, 1903
  • The Groomshire Gazette, July 17, 1903
  • The Houston Chronicle, July 3, 1903
  • The Trichmond News, July 1, 1903
  • The Argunaut San Francisco, Dec. 1, 1903

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1904 to March-1907

The Ahmadiyya Movement was totally silent on the Dowie prophecy. Dowie claimed to be the first apostle in 1904 (R. Harlan, John Alexander Dowie and the Christian Catholic Apostolic Church in Zion, (PhD Dissertation, University of Chicago, 1906). 

The biggest mistake that Dowie made was the creation of Zion, since this caused him to go almost bankrupt and stuck in the courts as his followers objected to his strange financial decisions. In 1904, his wife and children left him, which prompted him to travel to Australia and seek to open a new mission, which failed, he then returned to Chicago and suffered a stroke (1905) wherein different parts of his body were paralyzed, he still travelled to Mexico. While absent from Chicago, he was deposed from his business affairs by Wilbur G. Voliva, his chief lieutenant.
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
1907

John Alexander Dowie died on March-9-1907, the April-1907 edition of the ROR immediately ran to the press and proclaimed victory. The story was covered again in “Haqiqatul Wahy”, which was published on May-15-1907, the word Dowie is mentioned 92 times. The 30th sign argument was written before Dowie died, they were mocking his paralysis. Sign 196 was written after Dowie died (15 pages). Dowie is also written about in Arabic via the appendix (27 pages).

The Boston Herald of June 27th, 1907, ran a headline, “Great is Mirza Ghulam Ahmad”.
______________________________________________________________________________________________1911
The Full English-RoR for 1911
reviewreligionsenglish1911

Remember to read the index, lots of clues there.

The ROR of June 1911, pages 250-251

“”””His enemies, who did their best to bring him to nought, met with dismal failure in all of their base pursuits. One Lekh Ram of the Lahore Ayra Samaj dared to stand against him, but was crushed to death by the deadweight of his own insolence. His own invectives and anathemas fell upon him like a stab and consigned him to eternal doom. He was not the only victim of the Prophet’s righteous wrath, but many others suffered the same fate. Abdullah Atham (Athim) who entered the lists against him in a religious contest was miserably worsted in the presence of a number of his respectable co-religionists, but at last the dogged pertinacity and the wilful perversity of the former proved fatal to him. Quite recently the Christian Europe and the New World were shaken by the arrogant pretensions of Mr. Piggot and Dr. Dowie. Both of the false pretenders soon raised a tempest in the teapot. One claimed to be God himself, and the other, rather less arrogant claimed to be the fore-runner of Christ. At once wicked and blasphemous were their pretensions, the Prophet of India, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad of Qadian could not let them alone. He took time by the forelock and challenged the false claimants to make good their pretensions or prepare to die. The bubbles speedily burst and the hubbub instantaneously subsided. Disgrace overtook both and sent one to the grave unregretted, and the other to the fathomless abyss of oblivion. It served them right and the world was well rid of them. Thus we saw with these very eyes how faithfully God sided with his righteous servant. Nature in all its totality was placed at his service and success attended him wherever he turned his face””””
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1912

Dowie is mentioned in the ROR of Jan-1912.
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
1913

The death of Dowie is mentioned in the ROR of June-1913.
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
1916

The ROR of January-1916 reports that the “Truth” newspaper published an essay about MGA, entitled, “Indian Messiah Ahmad” on Oct-3-1915. They seem to have compared MGA with the famous Tolstoi (Tolstoy). Hassan Moosa Khan has some of MGA’s prophecies published in the
“Truth”, some were the famous Dowie prophecy, and the Piggot prophecy.

The ROR of May-1916 has an article by Abul Hashem Khan Choudri entitled, “A Glimpse of the works of the Promised Messiah”. This was a lecture in Delhi which he gave in March of 1916. He talked about the Dowie prophecy, and the Piggot prophecy. 

The ROR of Oct-1916 mentions the Dowie Prophecy, this is an article by Qazi Abdullah, the Ahmadi missionary in London.
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
1920
https://www.reviewofreligions.org/21715/review-of-religions-december-1920-edition/

The Dec-1920 edition of the ROR briefly mentions Dowie and described him as having met with “utter discomfiture”. The July edition also mentions the Dowie prophecy.

______________________________________________________________________________________________
1922

Review Of Religions – January & February 1922 Edition


The death challenge with Dowie is translated from Haqiqatul Wahy (urdu) into english, portions of it. See Jan-Feb-1922 edition of the ROR.
______________________________________________________________________________________________
1926
https://www.alislam.org/library/books/Invitation-to-Ahmadiyyat.pdf

Dowie’s name is mentioned 50+ times via the Khalifa’s letter to the Amir of Afghanistan, which was turned into a book.
______________________________________________________________________________________________
1933

Dard’s report of missionary activity is published in the ROR of Nov-1933. He claims to have given a lecture at the Dorking Rotary Club. He talked about MGA’s prophecies like Dowie, Lekh Ram, the Great European War (doomsday earthquake), the destruction of the Czar dynasty (Russia). He also mentioned how Ahmadi’s are persecuted and killed in Afghanistan, Maulvi Abdul Latif and a few others. Dard also claims that M.M. Ahmad (B.A.) had recently came to London.

The Ahmadiyya newspaper in the USA, the Moslem Sunrise quoted a newspaper in Zion, the Zion herald quite frequently, thus proving that the Ahmadiyya Movement was keeping an eye on Zion and Dowie’s followers.

______________________________________________________________________________________________
2000

“Fulfilment of a Grand Prophecy” by Anwar Mahmood Khan, published in 2000. The Ahmadiyya Movement has an location in Zion herein, its 2103 Gabriel Street, Zion, ill. The Zion plan 2001 was officially adopted by the Ahmadiyya Movement as they sought to open a temple in Zion.
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
2012
https://www.alislam.org/press-release/khalifa-of-islam-makes-historic-trip-to-town-of-zion/

The 5th Khalifa visits Zion.
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2022

The Ahmadiyya “Grand Victory” Mosque in Zion, illinois

The 5th Khalifa is visiting Zion in Sep-2022 to inaugurate “The Grand Victory Mosque”. This mosque was built by the Ahmadiyya Movement in jest, as a form of victory.

In 2022, there are less than 50 Ahmadi’s in all of Zion, the missionary is also unknown, this is evident by simply surfing the @Ahmadiyya_Zion twitter handle. Nevertheless, the Khalifa is coming to visit. The Khalifa is coming to inaugurate this tiny mosque for this tiny community of Ahmadi’s. The real reason is that this is a show of marketing, a show of pomp, of victory. MGA’s challenged Alexander Dowie, Dowie refused and his city was taken over by his chief lieutenant, Wilbur G. Voliva.

In typical Ahmadiyya style, they have spent million of dollars on building a mosque in Zion, ill. Ahmadiyya leaders told the press that Ahmadiyya women collected the money for this project themselves, however, this is normal ahmadiyya marketing, they have said this about many famous mosques like the one in Germany and London. They have named it “Fath-e-Azeem Mosque”, which means “The Mosque of the Great Victory”. They gave it this name since MGA challenged Alexander Dowie to a prayer duel. Dowie never accepted nor did he exchange unpleasantries with MGA and his team. In 1901, Dowie claimed to be the spiritual return of the Biblical prophet Elijah, and styled himself as “Elijah the Restorer”, “The Prophet Elijah”, or “The Third Elijah”. In 1896 Dowie disbanded the International Divine Healing Association to form the Christian Catholic Church in Zion. He renamed it as the Christian Catholic Apostolic Church in 1903. In 1905, he suffered a stroke, and traveled to Mexico to recuperate.[19] While absent from Chicago, he was deposed from his business affairs by Wilbur G. Voliva, his chief lieutenant. Alexander Dowie repented of his claims in 1907, however, he died soon thereafter while living in Zion on retirement salary, he was succeeded by Wilbur G. Voliva.

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Links and Related Essay’s

Alexander Russel Webb was never an Ahmadi

https://ahmadiyyafactcheckblog.com/2022/09/20/roberts-liardon-explains-how-dr-alexander-dowie-trained-150-pentecostal-pioneers/

In 1882-1884, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad was indirectly denying Quran 3:49, as he denied the miracles of Esa (as)

MGA pushed Lekh Ram to criticize Islam

Robert Pears explains how Dr. Alexander Dowie declared a holy war on Doctor’s, Devil’s and Drug’s

https://ahmadiyyafactcheckblog.com/2022/09/17/the-ahmadiyya-grand-victory-mosque-in-zion-illinois/

Dear Ahmadiyya: But Dr. Alexander Dowie changed his claims after MGA’s death challenge

An Answer to Dr. Dowie’s Prediction

Mirza Ghulam Ahmad and Mubahila, everything you need to know

Out of fear from Ahmadi’s and MGA’s fake prophecies, Batalvi registered to buy a gun (1898-1899), but was denied

Who is Mufti Muhammad Sadiq (1872–1957)?

http://iapsop.com/archive/materials/leaves_of_healing/

https://www.alislam.org/book/victory-prayer-prejudice/zion/

“The Great Ahmadiyya Homeopathy Fallout”—Part-2

Mirza Ghulam Ahmad claimed that Jesus’ example of morals was quite worthless and misleading

Click to access Fulfilment-of-a-Grand-Prophecy.pdf

https://www.alislam.org/book/brief-history-ahmadiyya-muslim/death-dr-dowie/

  1.  Percival Serle (1949). “Dowie, John Alexander”Dictionary of Australian Biography. Angus & Robertson. Retrieved 3 September 2007.
  2. Jump up to:a b B. Morton, “The Big Con: John Alexander Dowie and the Spread of Zionist Christianity in South Africa.”
  3. Jump up to:a b c d e H. J. Gibbney (1972). “Dowie, John Alexander (1847–1907)”Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 4MUP. pp. 95–96. Retrieved 3 September 2007.
  4. ^ The Life of John Alexander Dowie, Gordon Lindsay, Voice of Healing Publishing Co., 1951
  5. ^ “TOPICS OF THE DAY”The South Australian Advertiser (Adelaide, SA: 1858–1889). Adelaide, SA: National Library of Australia. 18 May 1867. p. 2. Retrieved 1 December 2011.
  6. ^ Lindsay, G (1951). The Life of John Alexander Dowie. Shreveport: Voice of Healing. p. 66.
  7. ^ London Daily Mail, 24 October 1900; Melbourne Truth, 19 March 1904.
  8. ^ J. Dowie, American First Fruits (San Francisco: Leaves of Healing, 1889)
  9. ^ London Daily Mail, 24 October 1900; I. D. Bowman, “Dowieism Exposed,” (Philadelphia: 1904), 10-1.
  10. ^ “”Christian Science” and Dowieism”JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical AssociationXXXII (14): 770. 8 April 1899. doi:10.1001/jama.1899.02450410034008ISSN 0098-7484.
  11. ^ R. Harlan, John Alexander Dowie and the Christian Catholic Apostolic Church in Zion, (PhD Dissertation, University of Chicago, 1906), p. 117; J. Swain, “John Alexander Dowie: the Prophet and his Profits”, The Century 64 (1902): 941.
  12. Jump up to:a b Wolfe, Stephanie John Alexander Dowie and Zion City, Illinois
  13. ^ Dowie, John Alex. “Leaves of Healing: A Weekly Paper Edited by the Rev John Alex Dowie”, 1894-1909
  14. ^ Zion, General Overseer, “The Story of Zion”Fallen Leaf, 10 Feb 1900, Vol.VI, No.16, p. 482
  15. ^ Blumhofer, 32-33.
  16. ^ “Holmes vs Dowie et al”, Federal Reporter 138 (1906-7); “Samuel Stevenson vs John Alexander Dowie (31 January 1902).” In Illinois Circuit Court Reports, 3. (Chicago: T. H. Flood, 1909), 153-92.
  17. ^ Personal Items, The Bulletin (Australia), 27 August 1903, p16, National Library of Australia
  18. ^ “Family Notices”The Narracoorte Herald. Vol. XXXI, no. 3, 204. South Australia. 12 March 1907. p. 3. Retrieved 25 September 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  19. ^ Newspaper Article, Stroke Lays Dowie LowChicago Tribune, 1 Oct 1905, p.3
  20. ^ “Zion Historical Society”. Retrieved 6 February 2015.
  21. ^ Blumhofer, Edith L. The Assemblies of God: A Chapter in the Story of American Pentecostalism Volume 1—To 1941. Springfield, Missouri: Gospel Publishing House, 1989. ISBN 0-88243-457-8. Page 33.
  22. ^ Blumhofer, 31-32.
  23. ^ Blumhofer, 34.
  24. ^ Blumhofer, 31-34.
  25. Jump up to:a b Adrian Hastings, The Church in Africa: 1450–1950. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994 pp. 499-505, 520-521, 537-538
  26. ^ Hennie Pretorius and Lizo Jafta, “A Branch Springs Out: African Initiated Churches” in Christianity in South Africa, edited by Richard Elphick and Rodney Davenport. Berkeley & Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1997 pp. 216-224
  27. ^ Morton, Barry (3 July 2014). “‘The Rebellion From Below’ and the Origins of Early Zionist Christianity”African Historical Review46 (2): 25–47. doi:10.1080/17532523.2014.943924ISSN 1753-2523S2CID 154164331.
  28. ^ Geaves, Ron (2017). Islam and Britain: Muslim Mission in an Age of Empire. Bloomsbury Publishing. pp. 60–1. ISBN 978-1-4742-7173-8.
  29. Jump up to:a b McDermott, Kevin. “A.J. Christ Dowie and the Harmonial Philosophy”: A Biography of John Alexander Dowie (1847–1907) Retrieved 4 May 2019.
  30. Jump up to:a b c Geaves, Ron (2017). Islam and Britain: Muslim Mission in an Age of Empire. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 61. ISBN 978-1-4742-7173-8.
  31. ^ Valentine, Simon (2008). Islam and the Ahmadiyya jamaʻat: history, belief, practice. Columbia University Press. p. 49. ISBN 978-0-231-70094-8.
  32. ^ Valentine, Simon (2008). Islam and the Ahmadiyya jamaʻat: history, belief, practice. Columbia University Press. p. 49. ISBN 978-0-231-70094-8.
  33. Jump up to:a b Valentine, Simon (2008). Islam and the Ahmadiyya jamaʻat: history, belief, practice. Columbia University Press. p. 50. ISBN 978-0-231-70094-8.
  34. ^ Leaves of Healing, ed. J A Dowie, Chicago, 27 December 1902; and 12 December 1903
  35. ^ The Sunday Herald. Boston, Massachusetts. 23 June 1907

 

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