Per Ahmadiyya sources, Ahmadiyya beliefs were introduced into Guinea-Bissau in 1995. We estimate that there are barely 300 Ahmadi’s in all of Guinea-Bissau. We have not found any Ahmadiyya places of worship, and have only seen one Ahmadiyya murrabi.
The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community of Guinea-Bissau was first established in 1995. However, it has not had an easy beginning since its founding. Only six years later, on August 20, 2001, the then president of Guinea-Bissau, Kumba Ialá, ordered the closure of Ahmadi mosques and mission houses, and called for the expulsion of Ahmadi Muslim missionaries of foreign Pakistani origin, to leave the country within a period of “48 hours”. In a meeting held with 500 Muslim leaders in the country, the president accused Ahmadi Muslims for interfering with the nation’s politics and for creating misunderstanding and instability within the Muslim populations. In response to the decision, Sory Djalo resigned from his post as the religious affairs advisor to the president.
In response to the president’s decision, the Community appealed at Bissau’s Regional Court, one of the nine regional courts in the country. The court found that the decision made by the president to have violated the nation’s constitution which guarantees religious freedom and which prohibits dissolution of religious groups without a prior court approval. As a consequence, the decision was declared void and unconstitutional. Despite this, the Community was still banned.
In January 2005 the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community was permitted to resume its religious activity, only to be banned once again two months later, in March. The reason attributed to this decision was a dispute in Gabú city between Ahmadis and non-Ahmadi Muslims which resulted in the injury of four Ahmadi Muslims. A year later, in 2006, the Community once again appealed the government’s decision to ban its religious activity. Once again, the government granted the Community the right to practice its faith openly. Since 2006, there have been no reports of discrimination against Ahmadi Muslims, governmental or otherwise.
President Kumba Yala ordered on Monday the Ahmadiyya Islamic group to leave Guinea-Bissau “within 48 hours”, accusing it of causing “serious misunderstandings” within the Muslim community, which accounts for nearly half the country’s population, the Portuguese news agency, Lusa, reported.
He told a meeting of 500 Muslim leaders that the Ahmadiyya were interfering in the country’s political life, Lusa reported. The meeting had been called, it added, to explain Yala’s decision to suspend the activities of the Ahmadiyya. That decision caused Yala‘s religious affairs advisor, Sory Djalo, to resign, saying he was not consulted on the action, Lusa reported.
The Ahmadiyya have been in Guinea-Bissau since 1995. Lusa reported that its doctrines, considered unorthodox, were unacceptable to the majority of mainstream Islam. Ahmadiyya do not subscribe to the Mecca pilgrimage as one of the pillars of Islam and claim their founder, Ahmady, is also a prophet.
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The constitution provides for freedom of religion, and the Government generally respected this right in practice.
There was little change in the status of respect for religious freedom during the period covered by this report, and government policy continued to contribute to the generally free practice of religion. However, in March 2005, the Government prohibited Ahmadiyya activity in the country.
The generally amicable relationship among religious groups in society contributed to religious freedom. In 2005 a dispute between local Muslims and Ahmadis in the city of Gabu resulted in injuries to four Ahmadis. There has been no violence since.
The U.S. government discusses religious freedom issues with the Government as part of its overall policy to promote human rights.
Section I. Religious Demography
The country has an area of 13,948 square miles, and its population is approximately 1.5 million. An estimated 38 to 45 percent of the population was Muslim; and between 5 and 13 percent was Christian. The remainder of the population followed traditional indigenous or animist religious practices. There were few atheists.
Christians belonged to a number of groups, including the Roman Catholic Church and various Protestant denominations. Christians were concentrated in Bissau and other large towns. Islam was practiced most widely by the Fula and Mandinka ethnic groups, and Muslims generally lived in the north and northeast. Practitioners of traditional religions inhabited the remainder of the country. Virtually all Muslims were Sunni. The Ahmadiyya were not confined to any particular geographic region. Their numbers were extremely small; there were no reliable data on number of adherents. With the 2005 banning of Ahmadiyya activities, followers had mostly returned to practicing the same form of Sunni Islam that other Muslims in the country practice.
Missionaries from numerous Christian denominations operated in the country without restriction.
Section II. Status of Religious Freedom
The constitution provides for freedom of religion, and the Government generally respected this right in practice. The Government at all levels sought to protect this right in full and did not tolerate its abuse, either by governmental or private actors.
There is no state religion. Members of all major faiths were represented in the national assembly.
Christmas is the only holy day considered a national holiday.
The Government requires that religious groups be licensed and reportedly has not refused any applications. There were no reports that new applications were made during the period covered by this report.
Restrictions on Religious Freedom
Government policy and practice contributed to the generally free practice of religion. However, in March 2005, following a dispute in the previous month between Muslims and members of the Ahmadiyya faith in the eastern city of Gabu, the Government prohibited Ahmadi activity, contending that Ahmadi activities, including the group’s practice of paying locals to attend services, were disruptive.
There were no reports of religious prisoners or detainees in the country.
Forced Religious Conversion
There were no reports of forced religious conversion, including of minor U.S. citizens who had been abducted or illegally removed from the United States, or of the refusal to allow such citizens to be returned to the United States.
Section III. Societal Abuses and Discrimination
The generally amicable relationship among religions in society contributed to religious freedom. Society was generally tolerant on religious matters; however, a high illiteracy rate leaves many easily susceptible to misinformation and manipulation by local leaders and others.
In February 2005 a dispute between local Muslims and Ahmadis in the city of Gabu resulted in injuries to four Ahmadis before police intervened.
Section IV. U.S. Government Policy
The U.S. government discusses religious freedom issues with the Government as part of its overall policy to promote human rights. Since there is no U.S. embassy in Bissau, the capital, the U.S. embassy in Dakar, Senegal, handled all official contact with the country.
The embassy maintained relations with leaders of major religious organizations, nongovernmental organizations, and missionary groups in the country, including the National Islamic Council and the Catholic bishops. Two Qur’anic schoolteachers have participated in the embassy’s English Language Program and a third was scheduled for the summer of 2006. The embassy continued to seek opportunities to further the understanding of religious freedom in the United States through public diplomacy programs, such as the International Visitors Program and dissemination of publications promoting tolerance.
_____________________________________________________________________________________________Links and Related Essay’s
- “The World’s Muslims: Unity and Diversity” (PDF). Pew Forum on Religious & Public life. August 9, 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-10-24. Retrieved December 31, 2015.
- “Guinea-Bissau: Attack on the independence of the judiciary”. Amnesty International. Missing or empty
- “Guinea-Bissau: Government expels Ahmadiyya Islamic group”. IRIN News. August 21, 2015. Retrieved December 31,2015.
- “Guinea-Bissau in 2001”. Encyclopædia Britannica.
- “Guinea-Bissau”. Freedom House. Retrieved December 31,2015.
- “RELATÓRIO INTERNACIONAL DE 2006 RELATIVO À LIBERDADE RELIGIOSA” (PDF) (in French). U.S. Department of State. Retrieved December 31, 2015.
- “Institute on Religion and Public Policy Report: Religious Freedom in Guinea-Bissau” (PDF). United Nations Human Rights Office of the High Commissioner.
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