Humphrey J. Fisher was born September 20, 1933, in Dunedin, New Zealand. He recently died in 2018, he had retired in 2001. He attended Deep Springs Junior College, 1950-52; Harvard University, B.A. (magna cum laude), 1955; Oxford University, D.Phil., 1959. Religion: Quaker. CAREER: University of London, School of Oriental and African Studies, London, England, 1952—, began as lecturer, became reader in African history, became emeritus professor of history. His first book on Ahmadiyya was published in 1960. Humphrey was way ahead of his time for the 1960s and 70s in the way he chose to bring up his children. He would work several days a week from our home in Hampton, south-west London, to be there for his four sons. He never missed a concert, sports match or other event. When I started school, he managed his commute so that he could wave as I crossed the railway bridge on my way to school. In 1986 he moved to Newchurch in the Welsh borders. Long an active Quaker, he became ordained in the (Anglican) Church in Wales by training at a Catholic college, and preached at Presbyterian churches. He also continued his academic career, teaching Islam and its history and drawing together teachers and students of different religions. At St Mary’s church, Newchurch, he provided tea-making facilities for walkers on Offa’s Dyke path, drawing thousands of visitors into the church. He also instituted the annual Kilvert pilgrimage, now in its 20th year, linking the four rural churches he served as a non-stipendiary minister.
This book was published by The Nigerian Institute of social and economic research. It was printed from at the Oxford University Press in 1963. Humphrey J. Fisher also wrote “Ahmadiyya in Sierra Leone”, which was published in the “Sierra Leone Bulletin of Religion 2, no. 1, June 1960. He also wrote, “Ahmadiyya in Nigeria” (1961). “Ahmadiyya in the Gambia, French territories and Liberia”, West Africa 46, 1962, pp. 93. “Planting Ahmadiyya in Ghana”, West Africa 2226, 1960, pp. 121.
Islam, A Study in contemporay Islam on the West African Coast by Humphrey J. Fisher (1963) Pages 1-25
Islam, A Study in contemporay Islam on the West African Coast by Humphrey J. Fisher (1963) pages 141 to end
His full list of books on Ahmadiyya
- Fisher, Humphrey J., “Planting Ahmadiyya in Ghana”, West Africa 2226, 1960, pp. 121
- Fisher, Humphrey J., “The Ahmadiyya movement in Nigeria”, African Affairs 1, 1961, pp. 60-88.
- Fisher, Humphrey J., “Ahmadiyya in the Gambia, French territories and Liberia”, West Africa 46, 1962, pp. 93
- Fisher, Humphrey J., “Ahmadiyya in Sierra Leone”, West Africa 46, 1962, pp. 73
- Fisher, Humphrey J., Ahmadiyyah: A study in contemporary Islam on the West African coast, 1963, London, Oxford University Press, 206 p.
- The concept of Evolution in Ahmadiyya Thought, Fisher, Moslem World-1970’s
Other academic books on Ahmadiyya
- Akanbi, Hafsa Mosunmola, Ahmadiyya in Lagos, 1968, bachelor thesis, University of Ibadan
- Lanfry, Jacques and Michael L. Fitzgerald, “The Ahmadiyya community and its expansion in Africa”, Encounter: Documents for Muslim-Christian understanding 2, 1974
- Balogun, Ismail A. B., Islam versus Ahmadiyya in Nigeria, 1977, Lahore, Sh. Muhammad Ashraf, 187 p.
- Yacoob, May M., Ahmadiyya: Urban adaption to the Ivory Coast, 1980, Ph.D. dissertation, Boston University, 252 p.
- Yacoob, May M., Ahmadiyya and urbanization: Migrant women in Abidjan, 1983, Boston, Boston University, African Studies Center, 16 p.
- Yacoob, May M., “Ahmadiyya and urbanization: Easing the integration of rural women in Abidjan”, Asian and African Studies (Annual of the Israel Oriental Society) 20, 1986, pp. 125-140.
- Yacoob, May M., “Ahmadiyya and urbanization: Easing the integration of rural women in Abidjan”, Asian and African Studies (Annual of the Israel Oriental Society) 20, 1986, pp. 125-140.
- Yacoob, May M., “Ahmadiyya and urbanization: Easing the integration of rural women in Abidjan”, Nehemia Levtzion and Humphrey J. Fisher (ed.), Rural and urban Islam in West Africa, 1987, Boulder, Lynne Rienner, pp. 119-134.
- Solaja-Alagago, R. O., Evolution of Anwarul-Islam movement of Nigeria: The Nigerian solution to the Ahmadiyyah problem, 1984, master thesis, University of Ibadan
Ahmadi’s co-operated with him
It’s important to note this. This wasn’t meant to be anti-Ahmadiyya. However, Ahmadi’s are calling it anti these days, since it exposes how Ahmadiyya worked with the British government to exploit african people and their resources. Later on Trimingham quoted it extensively.
This book is quoted by everyone and anyone studying Ahmadiyya in Africa
1—Piety and Power: Muslims and Christians in West Africa By Lamin Sanneh
_____________________________________________________________________________________________Links and Related Essay’s
#ahmadiyya #ahmadiyyatrueislam #ahmadiapartheid #Ahmadiyyat #rabwah #qadian #meetthekhalifa #muslimsforpeace #ahmadiyyafactcheckblog #nolifewithoutkhalifa #AhmadiMosqueattack #AhmadiyyaPersecution #Mosqueattack #trueislam #atifmian #ahmadiyyainafrica #fisheronahmadiyya
We are all sure that the Mirza family is in full control of their Khilafat business. In terms of the election of Mirza Masroor Ahmad, we have a video from 1997, wherein Mirza Tahir Ahmad mentions Mirza Masroor Ahmad and thus gives him legitimacy.
Mirza Khursheed Ahmad is a great grand-son of MGA, his grandfather was Mirza Sultan Ahmad. His father was Mirza Aziz Ahmad. His brother was Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, who also recently died. He died on January 24, 2018. He was born on 12th September 1932 in Lahore. On 21st April 1945, at the age of twelve, he filled out the [Waqf] form in order to dedicate his life [for the service of the Jama’at]. At that time, he was studying in the ninth grade. He completed his matriculation in the high school of Qadian. He completed his Masters degree in English from the Government College in Lahore. On 10th September 1956, he joined the T.I College in Rabwah as a life devotee and rendered his services there in the field of teaching English for seventeen years as a popular and conscientious teacher. I was one of his students. In 1964, he came to England for one year on a scholarship of the British Council for a course in English phonetics in the University of Leeds.
Continue reading “Who is Mirza Khursheed Ahmad? Another paternal great-grandson of MGA (1932-2018)”
Mirza Sharif Ahmad was the youngest surviving son of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad. His younger brother, Mirza Mubarak Ahmad died in 1907. He doesn’t appear much in the history of Ahmadiyya, he only appears in the famous Ahmady Company, which was created in 1941, his son was made a Colonel. He never wrote any books in support of Ahmadiyya nor he did ever deliver any speeches. Furthermore, he doesn’t appear to have graduated from highschool and attended college either. He doesn’t seem to have ever worked a job in his life. He was born in 1895 (see Dard) and died on December 26, 1961. He was the first of the 3 brothers to die after a lifetime together. MGA claimed many revelations about Mirza Sharif Ahmad which seem to indicate that he would be a king or a Khalifa. The editors of Ahmadiyya have made a point to make this connection ever since Mirza Masroor Ahmad was elected, since Mirza Masroor Ahmad’s grandfather is Mirza Sharif Ahmad. He died miserably, He was suffering from extreme pain from his joints, he was in extreme pain, for 3 1/2 years he had many attacks of thrombosis, he was admitted in many hospitals, he would get batter for a bit than again feel ill, 2 months before his death he was extremely ill, he had swelling on his ankles and knees, his heart was weak, would feel giddy, many times he fell while he walking and then had bruises, all his body was full of wounds (bruises). Ahmadiyya sources tells us that he was the only son of MGA who was totally like MGA, hence the illnesses.
Continue reading “Who is Mirza Sharif Ahmad (1895–1961)? The son of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad”
My team and I have found a rare book on Ahmadiyya. Its called “The Promised Messiah” by Mirza Mubarak Ahmad, who was one of the oldest sons of Mirza Basheer-uddin Mahmud Ahmad. Not to be confused with other Mirza Mubarak Ahmad, who would have been his uncle, instead he died in 1907. This book came from a speech that Mirza Mubarak Ahmad delivered as an address on 22nd October 1968 to the 19th Annual gathering of Indonesian Ahmadis at Jakarta. He also wrote “Our Foreign Missions” (1957) which explains the spread of Ahmadiyya in the world.
Born in 1835 in Qadian (India), Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad remained devoted to the study of the Holy Quran, and to a life of prayer and exertion. Finding Islam the target of foul attacks from all directions, the for- tunes of Muslims at a low ebb, faith yielding to doubt and religion only skin-deep, he undertook a vindication and exposition of Islam, first in his epoch- making Barahin-i-Ahmadiyya, issued in four volumes. Islam, he said, was a living faith, by following which man could establish contact with his Maker and enter into communion with Him. The teachings contained in the Holy Quran and the Law promulgated by Islam were designed to raise man to moral, intellectual and spiritual perfection. He announced that God had appointed him the Messiah mentioned in the prophecies of the Bible and the Holy Quran. In 1889 he began to enrol for his Movement now established in centres and mosques for the preaching of Islam all over the world. His 80 books were written mostly in Urdu, but some in Arabic and Persian. After his death in 1908 he was succeeded by Hazrat Maulawi Nuruddin, his first Khalifa. On the death of Hazrat Maulawi Nuruddin in 1914, he was succeeded by his second Khalifa, Hazrat Mirza Bashiruddin Mahmud Ahmad, who was also his promised son. Hazrat Mirza Bashiruddin Mahmud Ahmad died in 1965 and was succeeded by Hazrat Mirza Nasir Ahmad, a grandson of the founder. THE PROMISED MESSIAH MIRZA MUBARAK AHMAD THE PROMISED MESSIAH MIRZA MUBARAK AHMAD A brief study of the personality and character of Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, Founder of the Ahmadiyya Move- ment in Islam, delivered as an address on 22nd October 1968 to the 19th Annual gathering of Indonesian Ahmadis at Djakarta. PUBLISHED BY KENT PUBLICATIONS Printed in England by Lonsdale & Bartholomew Printing Limited MIRZA MUBARAK AHMAD Grandson of Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, the Promised Messiah and Mahdi (peace be on him), Mirza Mubarak Ahmad was born in May 1914, nearly two months after his father, Mirza Bashiruddin Mahmud Ahmad, the late Head of the Ahmadiyya Movement, was elected as the Second Successor of the Promised Messiah. On completing his studies in Arabic and graduation from the Punjab University, Mirza Mubarak Ahmad dedicated his life to the service of Islam and at present directs the affairs of the Tahrik-i-Jadid, Anjuman Ahmadiyya (Pakistan) of which he is the Chief Director. In that capacity he controls the Movement's various Missions outside the Indo-Pak sub-continent and in this connection has visited most of the European countries, the U.S.A., Middle East, Hong Kong, Thailand, Japan, Philippines, some countries of West Africa and Malaysia as well as Indonesia. Dear Brethren, Today I would like to speak on some aspects of the character of the Promised Messiah, the Founder of the Ahmadiyya Movement, peace and blessings of Allah be on him. Although I have not the honour and good fortune of being a Companion of the Promised Messiah, peace be on him, having been born several years after his demise, yet I have the honour of being related to him both spiritually and physically and my heart prostrates itself before my Lord for this great favour. I am a son of his illustrious Companion and Promised Son and Successor, the late Hazrat Mirza Bashiruddin Mahmud Ahmad (Allah be pleased with him), whom God declared to be His image in respect of his moral and spiritual excellences and of his piety and righteousness. Thus, though I have not seen the Promised Messiah, yet I have the good fortune of having seen the one who was his image in virtue and piety, and, in that sense I may say, I have seen him. However, as I am not a Companion myself, I shall base all my statements entirely on the reports of the Com- panions of the Promised Messiah, peace be on him. At the very outset I shall quote his illustrious Companion Hazrat Mir Muhammad Ismail (Allah be pleased with him), who had also the honour of being his brother-in-law. Describing his physical figure and features, he says: "Ahmadis are, by the Grace of Allah, to be found all over the world. But there is a world of difference between the Ahmadis who have seen Ahmad, and those who have not seen him. The bliss of having seen him and enjoyed his company still pervades the hearts of those who had seen him. There is a great deal of difference between a picture and its original; but the difference is perceived only by one who has seen the original. Instead of trying to give a detailed account of his physical figure and features, I may describe him in a single phrase: He was an excellent example of manly grace. "This description will, however, remain incomplete if I do not add that this manly grace was accompanied by a spiritual lustre and effulgence. Indeed he was sent to illustrate the beauties of Islam, but Allah blessed him with physical grace also, which attracted the hearts of those who saw him. 11 "He was fair of complexion. His figure was well pro- portioned. No shock, grief, trial or tribulation could turn him pale. His blessed face ever shone like a piece of pure gold. A cheerful smile always played on it. Those who saw him used to say: If this person were a liar, and were himself conscious of his being a liar, how could he have this cheerful- ness and these signs of bliss, victory and tranquillity on his face? These outward signs of piety and righteousness can not reflect an evil inward. Likewise, the light of faith can not radiate from the face of an impostor. 'There never was any sign of perplexity or grief on his face; the visitor always found a smile and cheerfulness playing on it. His eyes habitually remained half-closed. There was always an expression of keen insight, farsighted- ness and intelligence on his forehead. His bearing and dress betrayed no kind of formality. After his Prototype, the Holy Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, he had, indeed, some regard for his appearance, but absorption in or too much attention to it was alien to his dignified bearing. "Having described his external and physical grace, T would now mention some incidents regarding his internal excel- lences. First and foremost, was his love of Allah. That is the strongest link between the Creator and His creatures. Reflection on the marvellous manner how this Divine love started in his life, produces a state of ecstasy in every one that possesses a feeling heart. It was in his youth, when the desire for worldly progress and material comfort and prosperity is the strongest in man's mind, that one day his father sent a message to him, through a landholder of the locality, to the effect that, being on friendly terms with a high government official, he might be able to persuade him to give his son a good job if the latter would like it. On this, he, at once, said : 'Please tell my father that I am thankful to him for his love and affection for me, but he need not worry about any job for me, for I have already secured the job I liked.' " (Siratul Mahdi). His father always worried how this child of his would fare after his death. But the God of Islam is a very Faithful and Appreciating Lord. Just before his father breathed his last, God consoled him with the mighty revelation : 12 A* ( * s *^ "Is not Allah sufficient for His servant?" (Tazkirah). The Promised Messiah, peace be on him, often used to say that this message came to him with such glory and majesty that it settled firmly in his heart like a steel nail hammered into a block of wood, and that from that moment on Allah took care of him in a way that has no parallel in the care of a father, relative or friend. He often said that after this Revelation, he received so many favours from Allah that it is not possible to count them — (Kitabul Bariyya). Dilating on an aspect of this Divine care and guardianship, at one place, he says with a feeling of extreme gratitude: -> J I & p £ f yd I LSUJ a^%uL^^i^>; ( fp\&IIU%f) "There was a time when the crumbs fallen from the tables of others constituted my food, but today, by the Grace of Allah, whole families are being entertained at my table." One landholder of the locality, perhaps the same through whom his father had sent him the message regarding employ- ment, has said that once a high official or estate-holder said to his father, "I have heard that you have a younger son, too, but I have never seen him". On this his father said, with a smile, "Indeed, I have a younger son, but he is like a newly married bride who is seldom seen. If you want to see him, you may find him in some corner of the mosque, for he remains mostly in the mosque, and takes no interest in worldly affairs." What a wonderful phenomenon ! The Promised Messiah, peace be on him, renounces the world for the sake of Allah, and Allah starts showering spiritual and temporal favours 13 upon him. In fact, Allah placed the good things of both the worlds at his feet, but for him, in comparison with Divine Love and nearness to Him, nothing else had any significance at all. Supplicating Allah, in one of his Persian poems, he says: "O Thou, to Whom my soul, my heart and every particle of mine are dedicated, open wide to me, out of Thy Mercy and Grace, all the gates of Divine Realisation. The philo- sopher who seeks to know Thee through his intellect and reasoning, is devoid of intellect and reasoning, for the secret way that leads to Thee is far above reasoning and intellect. None of these has gained any awareness of Thy sacred Pre- cincts, whoever has gained such awareness has gained it through Thy Boundless Grace. Indeed, Thou dost bestow both the worlds upon the Lovers of Thy Refulgent Counten- ance, but in the eyes of Thy servants and lovers, the two worlds together are as nothing". (Chashma-i-Masihi). At another place he says : "In both the worlds, Thou alone art the Object of my love, and that which I ask of Thee is but Thyself". (Barahin Ahmadiyya). When the time of his departure from this world drew near, he received frequent revelations regarding the approach of his demise. But as he had perfect love for Allah, and had so strong a faith in the Hereafter, as if he were an eye-witness to it, he continued despite these repeated revelations calmly and devotedly absorbed in the Service of Faith, as though nothing made any difference to him at all. Indeed, he stepped up his activities more than ever, realising that he was soon going to meet His Beloved, and should, therefore, pluck as many flowers as possible, to place at His Holy Feet. (Silsila Ahmadiyya). At one place, the Promised Messiah makes mention of Divine Love in a way, as if he were talking with Allah, intoxicated with the holy wine of Divine Love. He says : "I can not count the signs I have seen, but the world has not seen them. My Lord, I know Thee, Thou alone art my God. My soul rejoices at the mention of Thy Name, even as a small child rejoices at the sight of its mother. But most people do not recognize me, nor have they accepted me." (Tiryaqul Quloob). 14 At another place, citing Allah as witness, he says: "Behold, my soul is flying towards Thee, in perfect trust in Thee, even as a bird flies towards its nest. So I seek Signs of Thy Majesty and Power, not for myself, but that people may know Thee and accept Thy holy Way." (Zamima Tiryaqul-Quloob) . In one of his Persian Poems, published in the "Haqiqatul- Mahdi", he says : "By virtue of the relationship I have cultivated with Thee and in the name of the sapling of love that I have planted deep in my heart, I call upon Thee, Who art my Shelter, my Support and my Citadel, to come forth and clear me of the charges levelled against me. "Illumine my face with the light of the fire that Thou hast kindled in my heart whereby hast Thou utterly consumed and destroyed all save Thyself and convert the darkness of my night into day." Allah, the Most Exalted, recognized and appreciated his love for Him in a manner befitting His Infinite Mercy and matchless attribute of Appreciation. He was greeted with the revelation : (». JX) i <&lj>v "I esteem thee as I esteem My Unity and My Singleness. I esteem thee as My son. I am with thee, O son of the Messenger of Allah." That is, Allah says : O Messiah of the Muslim Dispensation, thou art the bearer of the standard of My Unity, and art the restorer of its blessings, so I esteem thee as I esteem My Unity and Singleness. The followers of the Messiah of the Mosaic Dispensation falsely call him the "Begotten son of God." So My Majesty and My Self-Esteem demand that I should love thee as dearly as a son, so that it may become manifest to the world that even a disciple of Muhammad, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, can be raised to the 15 Spiritual dignity of the son of God. Further, thou art engrossed, day and night, in the service of the Faith of My Chosen Prophet, Muhammad, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, and art selflessly devoted to him in love and thus thou art as a spiritual son to him also. So, in thy capacity as his spiritual Son, I bestow My Eternal Love on thee and bless thee with My Eternal Companionship. The Promised Messiah, too, had a proper estimation of Allah's love for him, His being with him and His jealous regard for him. In 1904 a criminal complaint was preferred against him by one Maulvi Karam Din. The Hindu magis- trate trying the case harboured an evil design against him out of bigotry, and had made up his mind to send him to gaol. At the time when he was informed of the Magistrate's design, he was indisposed and was lying in bed. As soon as he heard of this design he got up, and said majestically: "Let him lay his hand on the Lion of God, and see the consequences." The design was miraculously frustrated and the Magistrate suffered humiliation. Sisters and brothers, I have given you a very brief and inadequate account of the Promised Messiah's love for God, and God's love for the Promised Messiah, peace be on him. Now, it is up to you to sow this seed of love in your hearts, and to nourish it with the water of Divine love. Next to his love for God, came his love for His Prophet. In this case also, the Promised Messiah's love is unparalleled. He describes it in a couplet: "Next to my love of God, I am intoxicated with the love of Muhammad. If this be infidelity, by God I am a confirmed infidel." Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad (Allah be pleased with him), who was the second among the Divinely promised children of the Promised Messiah, peace be on him, and occupied a lofty position in the service and the training and instruction of the Community, has said : "This humble one is a son of the Promised Messiah, and this is a great blessing, for which I do not have adequate words to express my gratitude to God, nay, I do not even have an idea of what would be adequate gratitude. However, I shall, one day, die and appear before God. Bearing this 16 in mind, and citing God as my witness Who is ever with me, and is seeing me, I affirm that I have never seen on any occasion when on the mere mention of the Holy Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, tears did not well up in the eyes of the Promised Messiah, peace be on him. His heart and mind, nay, every particle of his body, was filled with the love of his Master, Muhammad, the Leader of the Universe and the Pride of creation," Once the Promised Messiah, peace be on him, was strolling alone in the small Mosque, called Masjid Mubarak, which was a part of his house, and was reciting something in a very low tone while tears coursed down his cheeks. At that time, one of his disciples chanced to come in and heard him reciting the following couplet, which was composed and recited soon after the demise of the Holy Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, by his Companion, Hassan BinSabit: S»XiU&C#*&£\iLi)&i)£& >*> C^J>i±}, "Thou wert the pupil of my eye, which has now become sightless. After thee let any die who may so will, I was fearful of thy death alone." It is well known that the Promised Messiah, peace be on him, experienced every type of distress and was the victim of cruel and sustained persecution at the hands of his opponents, he suffered numerous tragic bereavements in the deaths of his children, relatives, friends and devoted disciples, yet his eyes never betrayed the emotions of his heart. But, while reciting, in seclusion, a couplet relating to the demise of his beloved Master, the Holy Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, the tragic event having taken place thirteen centuries earlier, his eyes overflowed with tears. I would fervently entreat my brethren who have not yet recognized the Promised Messiah, peace be on him, and have not yet joined his Community to assist his Divine Mission, 17 to reflect, in a spirit of earnest seeking after God and righteousness, over this one single point: Can one, who, thirteen centuries after the demise of his Master, is as sorely grieved and distressed at his loss as one is at a sudden calamity, throw off lightly the yoke of loyalty and servitude to him? Man has, now and then, to bear dire calamities and shocks. Parents are bereaved of their children, and children of their parents; husbands are bereaved of their wives, and wives of their husbands. Time, however, gradually heals the wounds and injuries so inflicted. But consider how deep and intense the love of that heart must be, the anguish of which proceeding from the loss of its beloved thirteen centuries earlier, would not be assuaged by the passage of time. Hazrat Nawab Mubaraka Begum, the eldest daughter of the Promised Messiah, peace be on him, and one of his Divinely promised children, who is blessed with great intellectual capacity and discernment and whose reports carry great weight, narrates that once the Promised Messiah, peace be on him, was indisposed, and was lying on a cot in his chamber. Hazrat Ammajan (the consort of the Promised Messiah, known in the Jamaat as Ummul-Muminin) and Hazrat Mir Nasir Nawab Sahib (Ammajan's father) were in his company. The talk turned on Hajj (Pilgrimage) to Mecca. Hazrat Mir Sahib suggested that as the journey to the Hedjaz had become much easier than of yore, the possibility of performing the Pilgrimage should be considered. At the thought of visiting the Sacred Shrines of Mecca and Medina the Promised Messiah's eyes began to run with tears ; while wiping them off he observed : 'This is my heart's desire; but I doubt whether I could endure the sight of the Sacred Tomb of the Holy Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him." (This incident has been published in the booklet: Traditions Reported by Hazrat Mubaraka Begum. I have, however, heard it directly from her.) It is due to this intense love for the Holy Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, that every poem or piece of prose, written in his praise by the Promised Messiah, peace be on him, is, as it were, an ocean of love, containing 18 innumerable pearls and jewels. Here is an English rendering of some of the verses from one of his Persian poems : "A wonderful light illumines the soul of Muhammad; of rare beauty are the rubies to be discovered in the spiritual mines of Muhammad. "If thou seekest proof of the truth of Muhammad, fall in love with him : for Muhammad is the clearest proof of the truth of Muhammad. "In the pursuit of his path, were I to be slaughtered or burnt to death, I would not turn away from the door of Muhammad. "Thou hast illumined my soul with love, O soul of Mu- hammad, my soul yearns to lay itself down for thee." (Aina-i-Kamalat-i-Islam .) Likewise, in an Arabic poem, addressing the Holy Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, he says : • < £ s *• -> * y M r * L *, t y i • ■j UJl*J \jJL>.\ U ) L$^f St O * S S <*m' 9 <* *\ < i*1\S'\ ' > %&Z&£Ul*±L 19 d^ 'HU; V "Look upon me with compassion and tenderness, my Master, I am the meanest of thy servants. "Beloved, thy love has penetrated my soul, my mind and my heart. Not for a moment, not for a second, is my mind free of the remembrance of thy countenance, O garden of my delight. My body is eager to fly towards thee, would that I possessed the power of flight." (Aina-i-Kamalat-i-Islam.) Sincere love naturally manifests itself through sacrifice and jealous regard for the beloved. A true lover is always jealous for his beloved, and is ever ready to sacrifice himself for his sake. The Promised Messiah, peace be on him, had a very jealous regard for his Master and Teacher, Muhammad, peace and blessings of Allah be on him. Referring to the false and outrageous accusations of Christian missionaries against the Holy Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, the Promised Messiah, peace be on him, says: "Christian missionaries have fabricated innumerable false charges against our Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him. Nothing has lacerated my heart so grievously as the mockery and ridicule these people have heaped upon our Holy Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him. Their cutting remarks against the best of men, have severely wounded my heart. God is my witness that if all my children, children's children, friends, colleagues and helpers were slaughtered before my eyes, my limbs were torn apart, the pupils of my eyes were plucked out, all my designs were frustrated, and I was deprived of every pleasure and comfort, the agony imposed upon me by these vile attacks on the Holy Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, would still far transcend the pain and suffering entailed by the miseries I have enumerated. So, Lord in Heaven, I implore Thee, cast a look of mercy and compassion on me, and deliver me from this grievous trial." (Aina-i-Kamalat-i-Islam.) 20 Once the Promised Messiah, peace be on him, was waiting for a train outside the Lahore railway station when Pandit Lekhram, who perished later in fulfilment of a prophecy of the Promised Messiah, happening to pass near and learning of the presence of the Promised Messiah, approached to pay his formal respects to him. The Promised Messiah, peace be on him, was preparing for the Prayer Service. Pandit Lekhram greeted him with Salam. But the Promised Messiah did not respond as if he had not noticed him. Pandit Lekhram then approached the Promised Messiah from another side, and offered Salam, again. The Promised Messiah remained silent. When Pandit Lekhram had left, some one said to the Promised Messiah : Sir, Lekhram came and offered Salam to you. The Promised Messiah observed : "He reviles my Master and tenders Salam to me." That was the reaction of one who was courtesy and mercy personified for people of all classes and creeds, who treated people of all nationalities and communities with the utmost kindness and sympathy. But where the honour of his beloved Master was involved, he was uncompromising. Another incident, which illustrates the same trait of his character, took place on the occasion of a religious conference held in Lahore. The Arya Samaj arranged an inter-religious conference in Lahore. The organisers of the Conference requested the Promised Messiah also to prepare a paper to be read at this Conference, and assured him that there would be no speeches at the Conference which might offend the susceptibilities of any section. The Promised Messiah, peace be on him, prepared a paper, and made it over to one of his distinguished disciples, Hazrat Maulvi Nuruddin Sahib, who later became his First Successor, to read it at the Conference. Accompanied by some other Companions of the Promised Messiah, Hazrat Maulvi Sahib attended the Conference. An Arya lecturer, in violation of the under- taking that nothing would be said at the Conference that might hurt the religious sentiments of others, adopted a very disrespectful attitude towards, and made vile attacks on, the Holy Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him. When this fact was reported to the Promised Messiah, peace be on him, he expressed great displeasure at the continued 21 presence at the Conference of Hazrat Maulvi Nuruddin and the other Ahmadis who had accompanied him during the offensive speech. He repeated with great vehemence: "Why did you continue in a meeting in which our Holy Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, was being reviled? Why did you not leave the meeting at once? How did your sense of veneration for the Holy Prophet and your sense of self-respect allow you to sit silent, and listen to scurrilous remarks on your Beloved Master?" Then he recited, very emphatically, the Quranic verse: J s s J9 -? J? mm ""' (||V(.>L> , I) "When the Signs of Allah are rejected and mocked at, do not continue to sit with them until they take up some other topic. 4.141." (Seeratul-Mahdi.) Can any other example of such sensitive love and jealous regard for the Holy Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, be presented in this age? The whole life of the Promised Messiah, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, and every small and great incident of his life testify to his overpowering regard and love for the Holy Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him. Having described his love for Allah and His Prophet, I would now like to relate some incidents of his sublime morals and noble conduct chosen at random. It is, indeed, beyond my capacity to encompass all the different aspects of his character; nor is it possible for me, within the limited time at my disposal, to shed full light even on some particular phase of his character. I shall describe a few incidents, by way of illustration only, so that, those who belong to his Jamaat may strive to follow his noble example, and those 22 who have not yet joined his Jamaat, may consider whether or not they are incurring the displeasure of God by rejecting him. The Holy Prophet, the Leader of mankind, the Seal of Prophets, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, has been described by Allah as one possessing the Most Sublime Character. Allah says in the Holy Qunin: *£}• ** *•■ S; V "Surely, thou dost possess the Most Excellent Morals. 68.5." That is to say, the teaching brought by him, and his character, are both perfect. So it follows that his Messiah, who was his Perfect Counterpart, and was imbued with his character, and was lost in his love, reflected the moral excellences that his Master and Prototype presented to the world. Hence, I shall relate a few incidents that illustrate his sublime moral qualities. First, I should like to present a piece of his own writing that represents his noble sentiments. He says in his book "Arbaeen" : "I would like to make it known to all Muslims, Christians, Hindus and Aryas that I have no enemy in the world. I love mankind as dearly as an affectionate mother loves her children, nay, even more. I am the enemy of false beliefs and doctrines only, which undermine truth. To be inspired by sympathy towards my fellow beings is my duty. To hate falsehood, 'shirk' (setting up equals to Allah), injustice and wrong-doing, and all sorts of malpractices and misbehaviours, is my principle." The Holy Prophet has exhorted Muslims to reflect and illustrate Divine Attributes : "Imbue yourselves with Divine Attributes." Thus, the Promised Messiah's statement, "I love mankind as dearly as an affectionate mother loves her children, nay, even more," was only the reflection of the Divine Attribute 23 of "Rahmaniyyat" (Graciousness) in him. It is a fact that every moment of his life was devoted to the service of mankind, and hundreds of incidents of his life testify to this truth. One of his Companions, Hazrat Maulvi Abdul Karim (Allah be pleased with him), who was very close to him, and lived in a part of his very house, and was much loved by him, has related that during the days when Plague was rampant in the Punjab, and innumerable people were daily falling victims to that dreaded epidemic, he once heard the Promised Messiah, peace be on him, praying in seclusion, and was struck with wonder at what he heard. He says: "There was so much pathos and anguish in his voice that it melted the heart of one who heard it. He was crying and weeping at the Divine Threshold like a woman in travail. When I paid heed to what he was saying, I heard him praying for God's creatures to be saved from the scourge of the Plague, repeating, Tf these people are destroyed by Plague, who will worship Thee?' Just ponder, this prayer was being offered to save the people from punishment that constituted a cogent proof of his truth, and was in fulfilment of a Divine Prophecy the non-fulfilment of which might make the truth of his claim to Messiahship dubious in the sight of those who lacked proper understanding and insight. But the heart that was imbued with, and reflected Divine Attributes, was restless in concern for God's creatures, and was fervently and pathetically supplicating its Lord : 'Lord, Thou art Merciful and Compassionate; deliver Thy creatures from this calamity, and open some other way for their guidance.' " Pandit Lekhram was one of the leaders of the Arya Community, and was a bitter enemy of Islam. When his vilification of the Holy Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, transgressed all limits, despite repeated warnings he would not desist, the Promised Messiah, peace be on him, challenged him to a Prayer Duel, and in conse- quence prophesied that Lekhram would perish by the hand of a mysterious assassin, and Lekhram perished in fulfilment of this Prophecy. But, while, on the one hand, the Promised Messiah was naturally happy at the fulfilment of a Divine 24 Sign in favour of Islam, on the other, he was distressed at the death of Lekhram. He wrote: "I am experiencing a curious mixture of feelings. I am glad and also distressed at the same time. I am thinking that if Lekhram had turned to God, and had abstained at least from using vile language against the Holy Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, I would have prayed for him, and I believe that even if he had been cut into pieces, he would have survived." (Siraj Munir.) In the matter of friendship and loyalty, too, he had no peer. His beloved companion, Maulvi Abdul Karim Sahib has reported that one day the Promised Messiah said : "It is part of my nature that if one makes friends with me, I have so much regard for this tie of friendship that whatever he may, later, turn out to be, I can not cut asunder from him. Of course, if he himself cuts asunder, I am helpless. Should I find a friend of mine lying drunk in the market place, I would, without any fear of what people might say, carry him home and tend him. "The tie of friendship is a very precious one, it should not be broken off lightly. If something very unbecoming or untoward proceeds from a friend, it should be overlooked and borne with fortitude." ("Sirat Masih Mauood," by Maulvi Abdul Karim.) There was, in Qadian, a gentleman named Budhamal. He was a bigoted Arya, and was one of the foremost in opposi- tion to the Promised Messiah, peace be on him. When, in fulfilment of a Prophecy of the Holy Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, the Promised Messiah laid the foundation of a Tower at the big Mosque of Qadian, the Hindus of Qadian petitioned the Deputy Commissioner of Gurdaspur to stop the erection of the Tower, on the plea that it would destroy the privacy of their homes. It was a paltry excuse, first because it is not possible to distinguish any one from the top of a high tower, and secondly, supposing that there was any risk of such exposure, it would affect all women, including Ahmadi women. However, the Deputy Commissioner, in accordance with the normal procedure, sent this complaint of the Hindus to the Magistrate of the Circle for investigation and report. The Magistrate came to 25 Qadian, met the Promised Messiah, and inquired about the construction of the Tower. The Promised Messiah, peace be on him, explained to the Magistrate that the tower was not going to be used for any display or for sight-seeing, its purpose was purely religious, namely, to fulfil a Prophecy of the Holy Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, and to make the Call to Prayer so that it could be heard at a long distance. He added that it would be fitted with strong lights, also. The Magistrate said that the Hindu gentlemen, who were sitting there with him, complained that it would destroy the privacy of their homes. The Promised Messiah, peace be on him, said: "Their complaint is not based on any sound ground. It proceeds merely from their hostile attitude towards me, for there is no question of any disturbance of privacy." Pointing to Lala Budhamal, he added, "Here is Lala Budhamal, ask him if there ever was an opportunity of my helping or doing a favour to him and his friends and I failed to do so. Ask him further, if he and his friends had any opportunity of doing me harm, and they did not take advantage of it against me." Hafiz Raushan Ali Sahib, who was a great scholar and divine of the Ahmad- iyya Movement, has stated: "Hearing this, Lala Budhamal was so embarrassed that he uttered not a single word and dared not even to lift his eyes to face the Promised Messiah." (Siratul-Mahdi.) Towards his friends and companions, the Promised Messiah, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, was pardon and kindness personified. Hazrat Maulvi Abdul Karim Sahib has written in "Sirat Masih Mauood" : "When the Promised Messiah, peace be on him, was writing his Book 'Aina-i-Kamalat-i-Islam', he handed over two sheets of the manuscript he had written to Maulvi Nuruddin Sahib (later his First Successor, Allah be pleased with him) to deliver them to me for me to translate them into Persian. The subject matter of these sheets had special significance in the eyes of the Promised Messiah himself. It so happened that the sheets were mislaid by Maulvi Sahib. As the Promised Messiah, peace be on him, sent me the por- tion of the manuscript he wrote every day, to be translated into Persian, and as I had not received that day's material in 26 time, I was naturally concerned over the delay. So I said to Maulvi Nooruddin Sahib, I have not received today any material from Hazrat (Promised Messiah) for translation; the press man is waiting for material, it is getting late. I cannot account for this unusual delay.' As soon as he heard these words from me, Maulvi Sahib turned pale. He searched for the sheets but he could not find them, so he was extremely worried. When it was reported to the Promised Messiah, peace be on him, he came out of his room, cheerful and smiling, as usual, and far from exhibiting any uneasiness he excused himself, saying: The loss of the material caused undue worry and anxiety to Maulvi Sahib. I much regret the trouble occasioned to him. As for myself, I believe firmly that Allah will, by His Grace, grant me capacity to write even better than I had written in those two sheets.' " Hospitality and honouring one's guests constitute essential traits of high moral character. The Promised Messiah, peace be on him, set a splendid example in this respect also. Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad, Allah be pleased with him, says: "Seth Ghulam Nabi reported to me that once he came to Qadian to see the Promised Messiah, peace and blessings of Allah be on him. It was winter, and it was wet. He reached Qadian in the evening. After supper he went to bed. Late at night someone knocked at the door. When he opened the door, he found the Promised Messiah, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, standing at the door, with a glass of hot milk in one hand and a lantern in the other. Seth Sahib says he was flurried to see the Promised Messiah, who, however, very affectionately said, 'Somebody sent me some milk, and it occurred to me that you might be in the habit of drinking milk at night, so I have brought it for you. Please drink it.' At this, Seth Sahib's eyes welled up with tears of gratitude. Glory be to God! What sublime behaviour! How much pleasure this Chosen Messiah of God used to find in serving and entertaining even his humble servants, and how much trouble he took on their behalf! (Siratul-Mahdi.) Hazrat Maulvi Abdul Karim Sahib, Allah be pleased with him, writes in "Sirat Masih Mauood": 27 "Once in summer, the family of the Promised Messiah, peace be on him, went to Ludhiana. I went into the house of the Promised Messiah, peace be on him, to see him. It was a newly-built room, and it was cool there. I lay down on a cot for a little while, and fell asleep. The Promised Messiah was, at that time, strolling and writing as was his habit. When I woke up, to my great surprise, I found the Promised Messiah, peace be on him, sitting on the floor, by my cot. I was startled to see him, and stood up out of respect. The Promised Messiah, peace be on him, very affectionately said, 'Maulvi Sahib, why have you stood up?' I said, 'While Hazrat is sitting on the floor, how can I lie on the cot!' Smiling, he said, 'Keep lying down. I was only keeping watch, and trying to stop the children from making noise, so that your sleep should not be disturbed.' " God be praised, what a wonderful demonstration of kindness and affection! Once the Promised Messiah, peace be on him, was sitting in his room; some guests also were sitting with him. In the meantime, someone knocked at the door. One of the guests moved to open the door. The Promised Messiah got up at once and said, "Wait a bit. I will open the door; you are a guest, and the Holy Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, exhorted us to honour our guests." (Siratul-Mahdi; Parti.) Munshi Zafar Ahmad of Kapurthala relates : "Once the Promised Messiah, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, was sitting on the roof of the Mubarak Mosque, Qadian, waiting to have his meal there with some guests. One very poor Ahmadi friend, Mian Nizam Din Sahib of Ludhiana, wearing ragged clothes, was also sitting there, at a short distance. In the meantime, some respectable guests came and sat near the Promised Messiah, peace and blessings of Allah be on him. To make room for each of them Mian Nizam Din had to move further back, till he reached the place where shoes were kept. When the meal was brought, the Promised Messiah, peace be on him, who had observed the whole scene, took a plate of curry and called Mian Nizam Din to eat with him in his chamber, adjacent to the Mosque. At that Mian Nizam Din's joy knew no bounds, and those who had sat near the Promised Messiah, 28 i peace be on him, pushing Mian Nizam Din farther away, were duly mortified." Another incident, illustrating his regard for human sentiment, humility and honouring of guests, is also related by Hazrat Munshi Zafar Ahmad Sahib of Kapurthala. Hearing of the claim of the Promised Messiah, peace be on him, two non-Ahmadi gentlemen from the distant region of Manipur, Assam, came to Qadian to see him. When they reached the Guest House at Qadian, they asked some employees working in the Kitchen to unload their luggage and set down cots for them. But the employees did not pay attention to what they said, and took up some other job that needed their attention. The guests, who were fatigued by the long and arduous journey, were chagrined and set rout for the return journey to Batala at once. When the Promised Messiah, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, learnt of the incident, he set out at once, just as he was, in pursuit of the guests. Some of his disciples also accompanied him. Hazrat Munshi Zafar Ahmad says that he was also of the company. The Promised Messiah followed them so speedily that he overtook them near the bridge over the canal, about two miles and a half from Qadian, and impor- tuned them very affectionately, with profuse apologies, to return to Qadian. On their agreeing to do so, he accompanied them back to Qadian. On reaching the Guest House, he was proceeding to unload their luggage, when some servants came forward and did the needful. The Promised Messiah sat by them and talked with them affectionately, enquiring about their requirements of food. He continued with them till the meal was served. The following day, when they were ■ about to leave, he sent for some milk and presented the same to them very affectionately. To see them off, he accompanied them up to the canal bridge and returned only after they had taken their seats in the vehicle that was to transport them. (Ashab Ahmad, Vol. IV.) Informality The Promised Messiah's life was free from all ceremony or formality. In accord with the practice of the Holy Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, he permitted no discrimination in favour of himself. People of all ranks and 29 I classes sat together with him like the members of a family. He would sit down at any place while others of the company equally informally occupied places considered as carrying distinction. On many occasions, he sat at the foot of a cot while others sat at its head; sometimes he sat on a bare cot while his disciples sat on a covered one; sometimes he occu- pied a lower seat while a disciple occupied a higher one. This absence of ceremony or formality did not import any disrespect on the part of his disciples or others in the com- pany. Indeed, every heart was full of love, respect and reverence for him. (Siratul-Mahdi, Silsila Ahmadiyya and Shamail by Shaikh Yakub Ali Irfani.) Behaviour towards Opponents Sheikh Yakub Ali Irfani has related that once Lala Sharampat, who belonged to the Arya Community, and was very hostile to the Promised Messiah, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, fell seriously ill with a malignant abscess in his stomach, and was much worried, despairing of life. When the Promised Messiah, peace be on him, came to know of his illness, he would often go to Lala Sharampat' s lowly dwelling to inquire after his health. Lala Sharampat was so eaten up with anxiety that when the Promised Messiah visited him, he, despite his hostility towards Islam, would humbly solicit his prayers. The Promised Messiah, peace be on him, always sought to comfort him and also prayed for him. He continued to visit him and pray for him till he recovered completely. (Shamail Hazrat Masih Mauood by Irfani Sahib.) The same affectionate treatment was accorded to another Arya of Qadian, named Lala Malawa Mai, who, while still a youth, used to visit the Promised Messiah, although entertaining extreme religious and communal prejudice. Several times the Promised Messiah, peace be on him, asked him to bear public witness to Divine signs to which he was an eye witness. But he always evaded doing so. It so hap- pened that Malawa Mai began to suffer from tuberculosis and his condition became hopeless. In that situation he came to the Promised Messiah, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, described his miserable plight, wept bitterly and humbly besought him to pray for his recovery. This shows 30 how deeply Lala Malawa Mai had been impressed with the Promised Messiah's piety. The Promised Messiah took pity on him and prayed earnestly for his recovery. His prayers were answered in the following Arabic revelation: "O fire, cool down for this youth, and turn into a means of protection and security for him." Soon Lala Malawa Mai recovered from his terrible affliction which was considered fatal in those days. He lived to be a hundred years, surviving the Promised Messiah by many years. (Related by Hazrat Sahibzada Mirza Bashir Ahmad, Allah be pleased with him.) Dr. Henry Martin Clark, a Christian Missionary of Amritsar, instituted an entirely false prosecution for incite- ment to murder against the Promised Messiah, peace be on him. God manifested, in a most extraordinary way, the Promised Messiah's innocence, and he was honourably discharged. The Christian missionaries had been assisted and encouraged in their nefarious design by some Arya and non-Ahmadi Muslim antagonists of the Promised Messiah. When the order was pronounced, Captain (later Colonel) Douglas, the District Magistrate, addressing him, said: "Should you desire to prosecute Dr. Clark for preferring this false charge against you, I am ready to sanction his prosecution." The Promised Messiah, peace be on him, responded with: "I have no desire to prosecute anyone. My case is pending in heaven." (Sirat Masih-Mauood by Irfani Sahib.) Maulvi Muhammad Hussain Batalvi, leader of the Ahl-i- Hadith Sect of Islam was well known. In his early life, he was a friend and classmate of the Promised Messiah, peace be on him, but after the latter's claim of being the Messiah, he turned hostile to him, so much so, that he declared the Promised Messiah, peace be on him, to be a Kafir (dis- believer) "Dajjal" (Anti-Christ) and "Zal" (Misguided), and raised a storm of opposition against him throughout the country. In the prosecution launched by Dr. Henry Martin Clark, the Maulvi appeared as a witness against the Promised 31 Messiah, peace be on him. In order to discredit his evidence, the Promised Messiah's lawyer, Maulvi Fazl Din, who was a non-Ahmadi gentleman, asked Maulvi Muhammad Hussain Batalvi a derogatory question concerning his descent or family. The Promised Messiah stopped him from doing so, saying emphatically: "I will not permit any such question to be put to the witness." Later, Maulvi Fazl Din, always mentioned this incident with an expression of surprise and observed: "Mirza Sahib is a wonderful person; an opponent attacks his honour, puts his life in jeopardy, and in return he stops his lawyer from asking his opponent such questions as might discredit his evidence." (Siratul-Mahdi, Vol. I.) The Promised Messiah, peace be on him, has said: ''Regarding sympathy for mankind, my view is that until one prays for one's enemy, one's heart is not purified. Hazrat Umar, Allah be pleased with him, became a Muslim because the Holy Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, used to pray for him frequently. Thank God, I have no enemy for whom I have not prayed several times; and I exhort you also to follow me and pray for your enemies. O ye who claim to be my disciples, be a community regarding whom, it has been said: (J-^ 'They are a people whose companions and those who come in contact with them, do not remain in a wretched or unhappy condition, uninfluenced by their piety and deprived of their sympathy." How beautifully Hazrat Sahibzada Mirza Bashir Ahmad, Allah be pleased with him, writes : "The Promised Messiah, peace be on him, was mercy personified. He was a mercy for his relatives; he was a mercy for his friends, he was a mercy for his enemies; he was a mercy for his neighbours; he was a mercy for his servants; he was a mercy for those in need; and he was a mercy for people in general; there is no class of people to whom he did not show mercy and affection. 1 would say, he was a mercy for Islam, for the service and propagation of which he dedicated every moment of his life, and laid it down in a spirit of extreme self-denial." 32 Trust in Allah Hazrat Maulvi Abdul Karim Sahib, Allah be pleased with him, wrote in a letter that, in a discourse on reliance upon Allah, the Promised Messiah, peace be on him, observed : "I have a strange condition of my mind. Just as, when it is close and hot, people expect rain with confidence, similarly, when I find my purse empty, I have firm faith that by Allah's grace, it will be replenished; and so it happens." Then, calling Allah to witness, he said: "I cannot describe the joy and pleasure I feel, and the trust in God I have, at the time when my purse becomes empty. My happiness and tran- quillity, at that time, is greater than it is when my purse is full." (Alhakam.) Hazrat Sahibzada Mirza Bashir Ahmad says: "Our reverend brother, Abdur Rahman of Qadian, who was an early and a sincere Companion of the Promised Messiah, peace be on him, and accepting Islam at his hand, renouncing Hinduism, reported to me that when the Promised Messiah, peace be on him, went to Lahore, for the last time, he had plenty of revelations regarding the approach of his death." Brother Abdur Rahman says: "During those days I perceived a special kind of ecstatic sign and radiance on his face. In those days, he used to go out for a drive in a hired phaeton. His consort and some of his children also used to accompany him. In the evening preceding the morning on which he passed away, he, as usual, went for a drive. When he got into the phaeton, he said to me, 'Mian Abdur Rahman, tell the phaeton driver, and make it quite clear to him, that, at this time, I have only one rupee with me. So he should drive us only within that limit.' " Hazrat Sahibzada Mirza Bashir Ahmad says that the Promised Messiah, peace be on him, passed away from this world exactly in the same financial and material condition in which his Master, the Holy Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, expired. Supplication and Prayer Explaining the philosophy of prayer and supplication, the Promised Messiah, peace be on him, says: "What a Powerful, Self- subsisting and All-Sustaining God is He Whom we have found ! The truth is that nothing is 33 impossible for Him, save that which is contrary to His Book and Promise. So, when you supplicate, be not like those ignorant worshippers of nature who think that everything is determined by the law of nature, and who have themselves invented some laws of nature. They are cast away and rejected. Their supplications are in vain. When you stand up for prayer, you must believe firmly that your God has power and authority over everything, then your prayer will be accepted, and you will see those miraculous signs of His Power which I have seen. God is a Precious Treasure, appreciate Him because He can help you at every step. Follow not those who depend entirely on worldly means. You should, in all your affairs — temporal and spiritual — ask strength and capacity from God. May God open your eyes, so that, you may realize that your God is the central support of all your means and devices. If the support fails, can the roof hold? Blessed is he who realizes this truth, and perished is he who has not realized this truth." (Kishti Nooh.) Likewise, he says : "God has blessed prayer with great power. He has repeatedly informed me that whatever is achieved shall be achieved by means of prayer. Our only weapon is prayer. I have no other weapon save this. God makes manifest whatever I ask of Him in secret." (Zikri-Habib by Hazrat Mufti Mohammad Sadiq.) I should now relate some instances of acceptance of his prayer. There was a small but sincere Jamaat in the State of Kapurthala. The members of the Jamaat had intense love for the Promised Messiah, peace be on him. Once the non-Ahmadi Muslim opponents of the State sought to take possession of the Ahmadiyya Mosque of Kapurthala and to oust the Ahmadis from it. Eventually, the matter was brought into court. The Ahmadi brethren of Kapurthala were greatly perturbed, and repeatedly entreated the Promised Messiah, peace be on him, to help with his prayers. One day, when requested to pray, the Promised Messiah, impressed with the sincerity as well as the perplexity of the brethren, assured them: "Be not anxious. If I am righteous in my claim, you will get the mosque." But the attitude of the 34 judge was openly hostile. He had announced publicly: "You have invented a new religion, so you shall have to build a new mosque too, and I will decide accordingly." He had not yet written his judgment; he intended to write it in the courtroom. While preparing to go to court, he directed his servant to help him on with his shoes. The servant was about to do so when the judge suffered a heart attack and expired within a few moments. The new judge who took his place studied the record of the case carefully, found that the Ahmadis were in the right, decreed the case in their favour, and awarded the mosque to them. (Siratul- Mahdi and Ashab Ahmad.) A boy, Abdul Karim by name, came to Qadian from Hyderabad, South India, for religious education. He was a good and gentle lad, and his mother was a widow. By chance he was bitten by a mad dog and was sent to the special Institute at Kasauli for treatment. Having taken the complete course of treatment there, he returned to Qadian. He seemed quite well, but after some time, he developed symptoms of hydrophobia. The Promised Messiah prayed for him, and, at the same time, directed the Headmaster of the school at which he was a student, to write to the doctor at Kasauli, stating Abdul Karim's condition, and asking for advice. In reply, the doctor telegraphed, "Sorry nothing can now be done for Abdul Karim as he has developed symptoms of phobia." On being told this, the Promised Messiah, peace be on him, observed: "They have no remedy for it, but God has." He continued to pray fervently for the boy's recovery. As a result of his prayers the boy, by Allah's grace, made a complete recovery and lived to a good old age. Hazrat Sahibzada Mirza Bashir Admad writes: "I recall an extraordinary instance of the acceptance of the prayer of the Promised Messiah, peace be on him. One Ahmadi friend, Munshi Ataullah Patwari, reported it to me. He says: 'I was quite indifferent to and ignorant of religion; nay, I used to mock at religious matters. I drank liquor, and accepted bribes. When some Ahmadi friends, living in my locality preached their faith to me, I used to mock at them too. One day an Ahmadi friend pressed me hard with his preaching. I retorted: "I am going to write to your 35 Mirza Sahib, asking him to pray for the achievement of an objective of mine. If the objective is achieved, I will believe that he is true in his claim." I then wrote to him as follows: "You claim to be the Promised Messiah and Friend of God. The prayers of the Friends of God are accepted. I have now three wives. Twelve years have passed since my last marriage, but I have no issue by any of them. I desire to have a handsome, promising and auspicious son, and that too by my first wife. Please pray for the fulfilment of this desire of mine." In reply, Hazrat Maulvi Adbul Karirn Sahib wrote to me on behalf of the Promised Messiah, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, in these words: "Hazrat informs you that prayer has been offered for you, and that God will bless you with a handsome, promising child by your first wife as desired by you; but there is one condition, you must turn to God like Zacharia." Munshi Ata Muhammad says : "I thereupon sincerely repented and turned to God, in compliance with this precept. Seeing this change in me, people began to say: 'What a charm has been practised upon this devil, he has given up all evil ways in a trice.' " Tour or fiwQ months after this, my first wife developed symptoms of pregnancy and I started saying to people, "You will soon see I shall have a son, and he will be hand- some and promising." At last, one night my wife gave birth to the promised child. I, at once, went to Qadian, several other people also accompanied me; and we took initiation at the hands of the Promised Messiah, peace be on him." ' There are numerous cases of such miraculous healing effected through the prayers of the Promised Messiah, some of which he has mentioned in his book, Haqiqatul Wahi. Miracles Wrought through Spiritual Power Hazrat Sahibzada Mirza Sharif Ahmad Sahib, Allah be pleased with him, relates : "Mian Abdullah Sahib Sanori, a very sincere Companion and one of the earliest disciples of the Promised Messiah, peace be on him, reported to me that the Promised Messiah, peace be on him, invited some friends to dinner, but just when the meal was going to be served, the number of guests increased unexpectedly, and the Mubarak Mosque was filled with guests. At this, the Promised Messiah, peace be on him, 36 sent word to his consort, asking her to send more food, as there were more guests than had been expected. Hazrat Ammajan (Consort of the Promised Messiah), being per- plexed, called him in, and explained : 'There is only a small quantity of food, as food was prepared only for a limited number of guests invited by you. What can be done now ?' The Promised Messiah said very placidly, 'Have no worry; bring the cooking pot to me.' When the pot was brought to him, he covered it with a handkerchief, and then passed his finger under the handkerchief over the cooked rice and went out, directing, 'Now serve the food, God will bless it.' Mian Abdullah says that the food sufficed for all, and every one had eaten his fill, and there was still some left over." (Siratul-Mahdi, Part I.) Hazrat Sahibzada Mirza Bashir Ahmad Sahib writes that he related this interesting report of Mian Abdullah to Hazrat Ammajan. She said that, through the benediction of the Promised Messiah, such incidents were quite frequent. By way of illustration, she mentioned one more such incident. On one occasion she prepared a little Pilau (rice cooked with meat) for the Promised Messiah, peace be on him. It was just enough for him only. But on that day Nawab Muham- mad Ali Khan, who lived in the adjacent house, came to see the Promised Messiah and his wife and children also came with him. The Promised Messiah told Ammajan to serve food to them also. She said the quantity of pilau was very small because she had prepared it for him only. On this, the Promised Messiah came to the cooking pot and blew over it, and said to her, "Now serve the food in the name of Allah". Hazrat Ammajan says that the rice was so extra- ordinarily blessed that the entire family of Nawab Sahib partook of it, and some of it was sent to the family of Maulvi Nooruddin Sahib, too, and some other people also were given a portion of it. As it soon became known as "Blessed Rice", many people came to have a share of it, and everyone was given a share. By the Grace of Allah, it proved sufficient for them all. (Siratul-Mahdi, Tradition No. 144.) Hazrat Sahibzada Mirza Bashir Ahmad says: "Musammat Amtullah Bibi of Khost, Afghanistan, reported to me that when she came to Qadian with her 37 father, she was of tender age, and suffered from a bad eye trouble so seriously that sometimes, on account of extreme pain caused by inflammation, she could not even open her eyes. She had undergone much treatment, but to no effect. The trouble continued to increase. One day, when her mother tried to apply medicine to her eyes, she became frightened, and ran away, saying, 'I shall have my eyes blown into by Hazrat' With great difficulty she went to the Promised Messiah, and said, weeping, 'I have severe trouble in my eyes, and I am agitated by severe pain caused by inflammation. I can not even open my eyes, please blow into my eyes.' Seeing that my eyes were swollen and I was in an agony of pain, he moistened his finger with his saliva, paused for a while (he was, perhaps, praying) and then very gently and affectionately passed his finger gently over my eyes. Then placing his hand on my head said: 'Go, my child, now, by the Grace of Allah, you will never have this trouble again.' Since then I have never had sore and inflamed eyes, although I am now an old woman of seventy." She was only ten years old when the Promised Messiah, peace be on him, blew into her eyes and passed over them his finger moistened with his saliva. In other words, for sixty years, the spiritual amulet of the Promised Messiah, peace be on him, did what no medicine had been able to achieve. Majestic Sense of Dignity Hazrat Sahibzada Mirza Bashir Ahmad Sahib writes that the predominant features of the life and character of the Promised Messiah were "Jamali", that is to say, characterised by love, affection, gentleness, forbearance and kindness, yet where the question of veneration and respect for the faith were involved, the "Jalali" (majestic) aspect of his character shone forth like the bright rays of the sun. Let me cite two examples of the manifestation of his sense of respect for the faith and of his majestic sense of dignity. Hazrat Munshi Zafar Ahmad relates that, when Maulvi Karam Din of Bhin was prosecuting the Promised Messiah, peace be on him, for libel, the Hindu magistrate prolonged the hearing of the case, and put the Promised Messiah to great inconvenience by frequently postponing the hearing 38 of the case for short intervals. It was rumoured that he wanted to avenge the murder of Pandit Lekhram, for which he considered the Promised Messiah, peace be on him, was responsible. One day, in open court, referring to the Promised Messiah's revelation: (I will certainly humiliate him who seeks to humiliate thee), he asked the Promised Messiah whether he had received any revelation to the effect that God would humiliate the person who sought to humiliate him. The Promised Messiah said confidently, and in a very dignified manner, "Yes, these are the words of God revealed to me. God has assured me that whoever will seek to humiliate me, shall himself be humiliated." The magistrate said, "Suppose, I were to humiliate you, what will then happen?" Again, with the same confidence and dignity, the Promised Messiah observed, "Whoever he may be, he shall be humiliated." To over-awe the Promised Messiah, peace be on him, the Magistrate repeated his question, two or three times, and every time, the Promised Messiah replied majestically in the same words : "Whoever he might be, he would be humiliated." The Magistrate then held his peace. (Ashab Ahmad.) The second incident of that nature also pertains to the same milieu. One day the Magistrate, Mr. Chandu Lai, held court in the open. During the course of the proceedings, the Magistrate asked the Promised Messiah, peace be on him, in a jesting tone whether he claimed to be able to show Divine signs. The Promised Messiah replied, "Yes, God shows signs at my hands." Having answered the question, the Promised Messiah was silent for a while, as if praying to God and entreating His succour, and then said with great dignity and full confidence, "I can show you any sign you like." The Magistrate was greatly struck by this reply, and did not pursue the matter any further. Those within hearing were also deeply impressed. (Ashab Ahmad.) Extraordinary Divine Help and Protection I shall now relate some instances of extraordinary Divine help and protection being extended to him. 39 An Arya raised an objection against Islam to the effect that the Quran mentions an event contrary to natural law when it says that when Abraham (peace be on him) was thrown into the fire, it became cool under Divine Command. In reply to this objection, Hazrat Maulvi Nuruddin, who later became the First Successor of the Promised Messiah, explained that "fire" in that context did not mean fire produced by combustion, but signified the fire of enmity and hostility. When the Promised Messiah, peace be on him, heard of this explanation, he said very majestically that Maulvi Sahib should not have had recourse to such an explanation. No one can encompass and comprehend all the laws of nature made by God. So it was no wonder, at all, if God made the fire cool for His Beloved Servant, Abraham. He then said: "Hazrat Abraham is not living today. I am here to represent him in this age, by God's Command. If some enemy of mine throws me into the fire, it shall, by God's Grace, become cool for me also. But it is not my business to exhibit feats like a juggler, for instance, to make a fire myself and then throw myself into it, and thus try my God. To try God is contrary to the Majesty of God and to the dignity of the Divinely-sent Ones and entirely against the Way of the Prophets. If, however, an enemy, out of hostility, throws me into the fire, the fire shall, surely, become cool for me, and God will save me from its harmful effects." (Siratul-Mahdi, Traditions 139 and 147.) Hazrat Maulvi Nuruddin Sahib, the First Successor, Allah be pleased with him, relates: "During the course of a discussion, a tradition of the Holy Prophet was mentioned and an arrogant opponent demanded the reference from the Promised Messiah, peace be on him, forthwith, thinking that the Promised Messiah would not be able to furnish it forthwith and would thus be publicly embarrassed. But the Promised Messiah, peace be on him, did not worry at all. He sent for a copy of the Sahih Bukhari and when it was brought he held it in his hand, and started turning over its pages very rapidly. Reaching a certain page, he exclaimed: 'Here is the reference.' Those present were astonished to have seen that he had been turning over the pages without even scanning them carefully, and had yet found the reference. 40 Later, someone asked him how it was that he went on turning over the pages without reading them, and, at last, stopping at a certain page, said, 'Here is the reference/ The Promised Messiah, peace be on him, explained, 'When I was turning over the pages, holding the book in my hand, the pages appeared to be quite blank, nothing seemed to be written on them, till I found a page on which something was written, and I then firmly believed that, by God's grace and succour, that was the reference I needed, and without any hesitation I put forward that reference before the opponent. It was the same reference the opponent had demanded.' " (Siratul- Mahdi II, Tradition 306.) Notwithstanding numberless instances of extraordinary Divine help and protection being extended to the Promised Messiah, peace be on him, he was always ready to offer every sacrifice in the cause of Allah. I shall mention here only one such instance. Hazrat Maulvi Adbul Karim Sahib reports : "The day the Superintendent of Police came to Qadian, unexpectedly, to search the Promised Messiah's house in connection with the assassination of Pandit Lekhram, Hazrat Meer Nasir Nawab Sahib (an illustrious Companion and father-in-law of the Promised Messiah) was very much disturbed on learning of it. He hastened to the Promised Messiah, peace be on him, in great perplexity. Overpowered by emotion, he, with great difficulty, managed to utter: 'The Police Superintendent is coming with a warrant of arrest and handcuffs.' The Promised Messiah, peace be on him, was at that time busy writing his book Nurul-Quran. Raising his head, he said with a smile: 'Meer Sahib, people wear gold and silver bracelets on their wrists for ornament. I shall be happy to wear iron bracelets on my wrists in the cause of Allah.' Then, pausing a little, he added : 'But it shall not be so. The Divine Kingdom has its own designs. God will not permit such retribution of the Successors of His Chosen Ones.' " (Alhakm, Vol. Ill, p. 24.) Now I shall relate two instances of the Promised Messiah's spiritual charm and influence. Hazrat Maulvi Sarwar Shah Sahib relates : "Once someone from Mardan came to Qadian to get himself treated by Hazrat Maulvi Nuruddin Sahib, whose 41 great reputation as a physician had reached him. This person was a bitter enemy of the Promised Messiah, peace be on him. For his place of residence at Qadian, he rented a house away from the Ahmadiyya Quarter. When, by the Grace of Allah, he was restored to health, and was ready to return home, an Ahmadi friend of his suggested to him that he should at least visit our mosque. He agreed, but on condition that he should be shown round the Mosque at a time when the Promised Messiah was not there. He was, therefore, taken to the Mubarak Mosque when it was not the time for Prayer, and there was no one in the Mosque. But it so happened, that, as soon as he entered the Mosque, the Promised Messiah, peace be on him, happened to open the door of his house which opened into the Mosque and entered the Mosque for some purpose. The visitor glanced at the Promised Messiah, peace be on him, and as soon as he saw the luminous appearance of the Promised Messiah, peace be on him, he was fascinated and losing all self-control, flung himself down at the feet of the Promised Messiah, peace be on him, and forthwith begged to be initiated into the Movement. (Siratul-Mahdi, Part I, Tradition 73.) Hazrat Munshi Zafar Ahmad relates that, having taken initiation at the hands of the Promised Messiah, peace be on him, at Ludhiana, he stayed on there for some time. One Sufi (mystic) asked some questions of the Promised Messiah, peace be on him, and then enquired: "Can you make one see the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him)?" The Promised Messiah said, in reply, 'There are some conditions for seeing him", and then turning to Hazrat Munshi Sahib, added, "Or he whom Allah blesses with His Grace may see him." Hazrat Munshi Sahib says that the same night he beheld the Holy Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, in a dream, and thereafter he saw the Holy Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, several times in his dreams. (Ashab Ahmad, Vol. IV, p. 92.) In the time of every Prophet, Divine light and blessings descend in such profusion that the phenomenon may be compared to a heavy downpour. The same was the case with the Promised Messiah, peace be on him. He was Divinely 42 appointed and the Divine light was bestowed upon him in a special measure possessing a special quality. It descended upon those, too, who lived with and near him, or were associated with him. Each received this light, according to his or her own spiritual calibre and capacity. The incident first mentioned testifies to this truth. In this context, I shall mention three or four Companions of the Promised Messiah who came from different classes and sections of society. The truth is that, in accordance with a saying of the Holy Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, they were, as it were, heavenly stars, in accordance with their own respective capacities. In respect of firmness of faith, spirit of sacrifice and obedience they were imbued with the characteristics of the Companions of the Holy Prophet and served as models for future generations. As Jesus truly said, a tree is known by its fruits. Thus, the Promised Messiah's Companions, constitute proofs of his truth. First of all, I shall make mention of Hazrat Maulvi Nuruddin Sahib who, later, became the First Successor of the Promised Messiah and whom the latter extolled in his Persian verses. Regarding him, Hazrat Sahibzada Mirza Bashir Ahmad writes : "When the Promised Messiah, peace be on him, started initiating people into the Movement, Hazrat Maulvi Nuruddin was the first to make the covenant of initiation. After his initiation he became even more devoted to the Promised Messiah, peace be on him, and after his demise he became his First Successor. The standard of his obedience and submission was so high and perfect that, concerning him, the Promised Messiah, peace be on him, wrote, at one place, 'He obeys me, even as the pulses obey the beatings of the heart.' " (Aini-i-Kamalat-i-Islam, p. 556.) Once the Promised Messiah, peace be on him, who was in Delhi, sent a telegram to Hazrat Maulvi Nuruddin at Qadian, asking him to join him in Delhi. The scribe, on his own, worded the telegram as, "Come to Delhi without delay." When Hazrat Maulvi Sahib received the telegram, he was busy with his patients in his dispensary. He stood up, at once, and left for the carriage stand, without going home or furnishing himself with the expenses for and other 43 requirements of the journey. When someone asked him how he was going to undertake a long journey without any provision or means for the journey, he said: 'The Imam (Spiritual Leader) has called me, directing me: "Come without delay", hence it is not permissible for me to delay my departure by a single moment. So I am leaving for Delhi in whatever condition I am." But God justified his trust in Him in an extraordinary manner. All the requirements of his journey were supplied, on the way, without any difficulty, through unexpected sources, and he presented himself before his Imam without any delay the following morning. There was a simple villager, Baba Karim Bakhsh by name. He was not much educated, but like most Ahmadis he was wholly devoted to the Promised Messiah, peace and blessings of Allah be on him. On one occasion the Promised Messiah was delivering an address in the Mubarak Mosque. Those who came late were standing in rows at the back and agghis caused a congestion the Promised Messiah, peace b# on him, directed everyone to sit down. Baba Karim Bakhsh was proceeding to the Mosque by the lane leading to the Mosque. As soon as he heard this direction of the Imam, he sat down on his feet and started creeping towards the Mosque in that position. Later he explained that when he heard the direction to sit down, he thought that if he died while walking to the Mosque what answer would he make to God if He were to take him to task for disobeying the direction of the Messiah?" (Siratul-Mahdi, Tradition 741.) There was another Companion, Mian Abdul. Aziz, a village Patwari (Keeper of Land Records). He was one of the early Companions of the Promised Messiah, peace be on him. He related an incident to Hazrat Sahibzada Mirza Bashir Ahmad, as follows: "On one occasion, the Promised Messiah, peace be on him, had gone to Gurdaspur in connection with a law suit. He was ill at that time— suffering from severe dysentery, and had frequent motions. I stayed by him and supplied him with water for ablutions whenever he needed it. But he repeatedly said, 'Mian Abdul Aziz, please go to bed; I shall wake you up if necessary.' But I kept awake the whole night, lest I should fall asleep, and he should call me, and 44 I should fail to hear him, and it should cause him trouble. In the morning, while sitting among his friends, he said in a happy mood, 'What a great blessing of God is upon me! Jesus, at a time of trial, repeatedly exhorted his disciples to keep awake and pray, yet they fell asleep (Matthew, 26: 39-46), whereas I, suffering only from an illness, asked Munshi Abdul Aziz, again and again, to go to sleep, but he kept awake the whole night for my sake and did not for a moment sleep'." (Siratul-Mahdi, Tradition 701.) Let me mention the instance of another Companion, Munshi Muhammad Rura, who was deeply devoted to the Promised Messiah, peace be on him. Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad Sahib writes : "In 1915 or 1916", Mr. H. A. Walter, Secretary, Young Men's Christian Association, came to Qadian. He wanted to write and publish a book on the Ahmadiyya Movement. He ^expressed his desire to meet some devoted Companion of ill Promised Messiah, peace be on him. So he was introduced to Munshi Muhammad Rura, in the Mubarak Mosque. At that time Munshi Sahib was sitting in the Mosque, waiting for the Prayer Service. Having been formally introduced, Mr. Walter asked Munshi Sahib: 'How long were you in contact with Mirza Sahib? What proof df his truth appealed to you most, and what feature of his character impressed you more than others ?' Munshi Sahib said very simply : 'I knew Mirza Sahib even before he claimed to be the Messiah. I have never seen such a holy arid luminous countenance. For me his luminous appearance and majnfetic personality constituted the greatest proof of his truth. We were always eager to see his radiant face.' Saying this, Hazrat Munshi Sahib began to sob, overwhelmed with emotion at the recollection of the Promised Messiah, peace be on him, even as a child sobs bitterly on being separated from its mother. Mr. Walter was so much im- pressed with this simple incident that he made mention of it in his book 'Ahmadiyya Movement', concluding with the following words : 'We may calf Mirza Sahib deluded, but we can never call one who has created such a deep impression upon his | disciples, an impostor.' 45 "I recollect another incident pertaining to Munshi Rura Sahib, related by Hazrat Khalifatul-Masih II, Allah be pleased with him. He has stated that one day someone knocked at the door of the Mubarak Mosque that opens into the house of the Promised Messiah, peace be on him. At this, he came out, and found Munshi Rura Khan standing at the door with a purse in his hand. Seeing Hazrat Khalifatul Masih II, Munshi Sahib broke down and sobbed bitterly. At last when he could control himself he handed over the purse to Hazrat Khalifatul Masih II, and said: 'I had an ardent desire to present some gold coins to the Promised Messiah, peace be on him, in his lifetime. But, partly due to poverty, and partly due to the fact that whatever I saved I hastened to present it to the Promised Messiah, peace be on him, this desire of mine was not fulfilled. Now I have brought these few gold coins thinking that, even if I failed to present any such gift to the Promised Messiah himself, peace be on him, I should, at least, present it now to his son.' This small incident is also an eloquent testimony of the deep love and affection that the Companions of the Promised Messiah, peace be on him, entertained for him. I should like to mention here two incidents reported to me direct by Hazrat Mubaraka Begum, the eldest daughter of the Promised Messiah, peace be on him. She said to me: "One day, the Promised Messiah, peace be on him, was lying in his hujra (closet) which was to the west of the Bait-ud-Doa (Prayer Room). There was no one by him at that time. I entered the closet and started massaging him. Suddenly, I felt his body shiver, as if an electric current was passing through him. His eyes were closed, and there were big drops of sweat, like pearls, on his forehead. Then he opened his eyes and wrote something on a piece of paper, and said to me, 'Call Meer Sahib', i.e. Hazrat Meer Nasir Nawab who was, at that time, in another room. When Hazrat Meer Sahib came, the Promised Messiah, handed over the paper to him, and said, 'Read this, it has just been revealed to me.' The words of the revelation were: 'Progress and success shall be accompanied by mighty Signs'." Every one of you sitting here, is a proof of the truth of this revelation. Besides countless other Signs we see daily, 46 every individual that joins the Movement constitutes a proof of the truth of this Revelation. Hazrat Mubaraka Begum further reports : "In 1907 or in early 1908, the Promised Messiah, peace be on him, was preparing for some journey. To me also he said, 'Offer two Rakats of "Nan"' (supererogatory Prayer) and offer "Doa-i-Istikhara"*, and inform me if you see some dream. I did as instructed by him, and, at night I saw a dream that Hazrat Maulvi Nuruddin was sitting in a part of the Mubarak Mosque, and was reading a book of some- what large size, holding it in his hand, and announced: 'These are the prophecies of the Promised Messiah, peace be on him, concerning me, and I am Abu Bakr.' In this dream, I also saw Hazrat Ammajan (Promised Messiah's consort) distributing meat, sitting in the yard, downstairs'. Hazrat Mubaraka Begum adds, 'At that time I did not understand the meaning of this dream. But when the Promised Messiah, peace be on him, heard this dream from me, he said "Don't relate this dream to your mother.' " In this dream, while, on the one hand, there was a hint of the approaching demise of the Promised Messiah, peace be on him, who himself had been receiving during the last two or three years of his life, frequent revelations presaging his demise, on the other hand, there was an indication of the establishment of Khilafat, and that Hazrat Maulvi Nuruddin Sahib would be his First Successor. I shall now speak of the knowledge bestowed upon the Promis*e<i ; 'Messiah, peace be on him, by Divine grace. The Holy Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, had prophesied that in the time of the Promised Messiah religious wars would come to an end and Islam would triumph through reason, persuasion and argument. In accordance with this prophecy, the Promised Messiah, peace be on him, championed the cause of Islam with the Pen. God accepted this noble endeavour of his and bestowed upon him the itle of "Sultanul-Qalam" (Master of the Pen). 11 the writings of the Promised Messiah, peace be on * A supplication that, if a particular undertaking is good and auspicious within Allah's knowledge, He may ordain, facilitate and bless it, otherwise, He may cause it to be abandoned. 47 him, his lectures and discourses, possess a special spiritual quality which attracts and impresses the mind and are proof of his being the recipient of Divine help and succour. Here I shall speak only of one writing and one speech, written and spoken with the help of special Divine grace. The first of these is "The Philosophy of the Teachings of Islam". It was written for the Religious Conference held at Lahore in the last days of December 1894, in which the repre- sentatives of all religions were invited to read papers written in the light of the teachings of their respective faiths on topics formulated by the Conveners of the Conference. Detailed accounts of this Conference were published in the Press and were set forth in the Report of the Conveners of the Conference and in the later writings of the Promised Messiah, peace be on him. I give here a summary of the report of Hazrat Bhai Abdur Rahman, one of the early Companions of the Promised Messiah, peace be on him. In the latter half of the year 1894, a Sadhu Swami Shogan Chandar came to Qadian, and told the Promised Messiah, peace be on him, that he was in search of Truth. The Promised Messiah said to him that the very purpose of his own advent was to settle differences between religions and to show mankind the way that leads to the True God. So if the Swami could arrange a conference in Lahore, in which the representatives of all religions might set forth the excellences of their respective faiths, and thereby help people to find the way to God, it would be an act of great merit and a great service to mankind, and would help people recognise Signs of their true Lord and Master. Being impressed by the suggestion of the Promised Messiah, the Swami went to Lahore, met leaders of different religions, and succeeded in arranging a Conference. It was proposed that representatives of all religions should be invited to read papers on the Existence and Attributes of God and on the Principles of their respective faiths, concerning five points propounded by the Conveners of the Conference. The Promised Messiah, peace be on him, wrote an exhaustive paper dealing with those five points, and, several days before the Conference, published a handbill in which he proclaimed : "God has revealed to me that: 48 *jr "1. My paper shall be upheld and shall prevail over all other papers that may be read in the Conference. "2. This paper will be a means of the manifestation of the Greatness of God, and, as a result of its advocacy of the teach- ings of Islam, all other religions will pale before it like the Jewish tribes of Khaibar, and their banners will be lowered. "3. With the publication of this paper, Quranic Truth shall prevail, and the light of Islam shall spread till it com- pletes its circle of diffusion." (Ishtihar, December 21, 1898.) This All- World Religious Conference was held in Lahore on December 26, 27, 28 and 29. In it the representatives of Islam, Christianity, Hinduism (both Sanatan Dharm and Arya Samaj), Sikhism, Brahmo Samaj, Free Thinkers, Theosophical Society and other faiths presented their respect- ive beliefs and doctrines. The Promised Messiah's paper was^read by his devoted Companion, Maulvi Abdul Karim of Sialkot. Bhai Abdur Rahman says: "While the paper was being read, I heard Hindus, Sikhs, Aryas and Christians, saying spontaneously, 'Subhanallah, Subhanallah P (Glory be to Allah! Glory be to Allah!). The audience, which consisted of thousands of people, was sitting motionless, like lifeless statues, listening with rapt attention. It would have been no wonder if birds had alighted and perched on their heads without being noticed. The paper seemed to have gripped all hearts; no sound, not even that of breathing, was audible except the sonorous tones of the reader of the paper. Would that I had the ability to describe even one tenth Of whafcl saw and heard at that time ! There was not a single heart that did not feel the joy and pleasure of the hour. There was not a single tongue that did not acknowledge and praise the beauty and excellence of the paper. I saw and heard many Hindus and Sikhs embracing Muslims, and saying: "If this is the teaching of the Quran, and if this is Islam, as described by Mirza Sahib, we shall be constrained to accept Islam tomorrow, if not today." (Ashab Ahmad.) Munshi Jalaluddin, who made a fair copy of the paper to be read in the Conference, says that the Promised Messiah, peace be on him, once said : "I had said a prayer over every line of this. paper," ':t,K 49 The paper was published in book form and has been translated into English and some other languages. I appeal to Ahmadi brothers, living in different parts of the world, to take a special interest in its wide circulation, because it carries with it the special grace and blessings of Allah. I would also appeal to them to translate it into their own languages and circulate it far and wide in their respective countries so that Quranic Truth may prevail and the light of Islam spread into all corners of the earth. . I now turn to the speech — a sermon of the Promised Messiah. In 1900, the Promised Messiah, peace be on him, delivered a sermon in Arabic, known and published as "Khutba-i-Ilhamia" (The Revealed Sermon). As its name indicates the sermon was Divinely inspired. Let me quote Bhai Abdur Rahman again : "On the day of Eidul-Azha, the Promised Messiah, peace be on him, announced that God had commanded him to deliver the sermon in Arabic that day, and that He had granted him the capacity to do so. The Eid Prayer was led by Maulvi Abdul Karim Sahib. After the Prayer, the Promised Messiah, peace be on him, delivered a short sermon in Urdu in which he enjoined amity, unity and fraternal love. He then asked Hazrat Maulvi Nuruddin and Hazrat Maulvi Abdul Karim to sit near him and directed : "Whatever I am going to say now is divinely inspired, so take it down carefully that it may be safeguarded, for, later, I myself may not be able to recall what I say now'." (Ashab-i- Ahmad, Vol. I, Tradition reported by Bhai Abdur Rahman.) Then he sat down in a chair, at the central door of the Aqsa Mosque, facing east, and started his speech in Arabic, the first sentence of which was : tf&J ££'<&$)*% (du»LjM d k-i**') ^uh 50 "O servants of Allah, ponder over this Day which is the Day of Sacrifices, because Allah has invested it with numerous blessed mysteries for the wise." Hazrat Bhai Abdur Rahman says: "When the Promised Messiah, peace be on him, took his seat on the chair and started the lecture, it seemed as if he had been transported to the other world. His eyes remained almost closed, and his blessed face appeared so luminous, as if Divine light, having enveloped it, had illuminated and made it lustrous. At that time, one could not gaze at his face. His forehead radiated bright rays of light that dazzled the eyes of those who looked at it. The blessed tongue that was in motion was,t>f course, his, but it seemed as though some external force/\\vas compelling it to move. To give a word-picture of his complete surrender to and his concentration on Allah, his reliance upon Him, his ecstatic condition, self-oblivion and absorption in the Divinity, is beyond human power." After he had finished speaking, the audience requested an Urdu translation of the speech. So, Hazrat Maulvi Abdul Karim gave an Urdu version of this eloquent, impressive and miraculous Arabic speech. (The speech is to be found in the first thirty-eight pages of the book, "Khutba-i-Ilhamia". In the course of the translation, at one place, the Promised Messiah, peace be on him, under some Divine inspiration, rose from the chair and went into prostration. Along with him the audience also fell prostrate before their Heavenly Lord. (Ashab-i- Ahmad.) Regarding this miraculous speech, the Promised Messiah, peace be on him, says : "Subhanallah! (Glory be to Allah!) At that time a hidden fountain was gushing out. I do not know whether it was I who was speaking, or some angel was speaking through my tongue, for I knew that I had no share in this speech. Self- made sentences came out of my mouth, and every sentence was a sign for me. It is an Intellectual Miracle shown by ■God, and none can present the like of it." (Haqiqatul Wahi, pp. 362-363.) This is a very brief account of the character of the Divinely ^Commissioned Reformer of this age, whose whole life was ull of Divine signs, miracles, Divine help and blessings. 51 I shall now conclude my speech by quoting a comprehensive note about his character, recorded by Hazrat Meer Mu- hammad Ismail, Allah be pleased with him. Hazrat Meer Sahib writes: "The Promised Messiah, peace be on him, was endowed with perfect morals. He was extremely compassionate and merciful; he was charitable and hospitable; he was the bravest among men; he advanced like a lion to meet trials before which a man's heart would sink. Forgiveness, forbearance, generosity, honesty, integrity, humility, patience, thankfulness, self-sufficiency, modesty, chastity, diligence, contentment, faithfulness, informality, simplicity, kindness, respect and reverence for God, His Prophet and religious divines, fortitude, moderation, giving every one his due, fulfilment of promise, alertness, sympathy, propagation of faith, training and instructing, sociability, prudence, dignity, purity, liveliness and good humour, fidelity, self-respect, beneficence, respect for others, optimism, valour, resolution, jealous regard for a cause, cheerfulness, broadmindedness, self-control, sacrifice, punctuality and good use of time, management and administration, dissemination of learning and Divine knowledge, love of God and His Prophet, and perfect obedience to the Holy Prophet were the traits of his character. He had a magnetic charm and possessed a peculiar fascination. He inspired awe and had a blessed personality. He was affectionate, his words were impressive and effective, his prayers efficacious. His Companions sat by him, in a circle, like moths around a lamp, and their hearts were washed clean automatically. "In short, he presented to the world an example of character and conduct that was miraculous. He was a model of manly beauty and moral excellences. If he was the counterpart of any person, it was of the Holy Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, and of none else. I can cite examples and incidents illustrating every trait of his character mentioned here; there is not the least exaggeration in it. "I saw him first when I was a child of two years. Then I continued to see him till he disappeared from my sight, when I was a young man of twenty-seven. Citing Allah as 52 - my Witness, I assert that I have never seen anyone better, more well-behaved, more pious, more righteous, more absorbed in love of God and the Prophet. He was a light that appeared in the world for humanity. He was a rain of mercy that was showered on the earth after a long spell of drought, and made the earth green and verdant." Finally, I supplicate our All-Merciful and All-Forgiving Lord: Heavenly Lord, I have, in accordance with my limited knowledge and power of understanding, related in this gathering some incidents of the holy life of Thy Promised Messiah, peace be on him, so that, his followers may walk in his footsteps, and be imbued with the character with which he desired to see his Community invested. Gracious Lord, through Thy sheer grace, convert us, in the trueisense of the term, into a holy Community of Thy Holy Messiah, and grant us the strength to pursue the path of Thy Pleasure. Let not, Lord, any design of our opponents, any trial or tribulation, any false notion of our dignity, any base desire, any spite or rancour, any conjecture based on defective or presumptive evidence, lead us astray from the right path. Lord, shower Thy grace upon us, for nothing can be achieved and accomplished without Thy grace. Amen. All praise belongs to Allah, Lord of the Worlds. *v 53 MIRZA MUBARAK AHMAD: grandson of Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmac the Promised Messiah and Mahdi (peace be on him), Mirza Mubarak Ahmad wa born in May 1914, nearly two months after his father, Mirza Bashiruddin Mahmu Ahmad, the late Head of the Ahmadiyya Movement, was elected as the Secou Successor of the Promised Messiah. On completing his studies in Arabic and graduation from the Punjab Universit) Mirza Mubarak Ahmad dedicated his life to the service of Islam and at presen directs the affairs of theJTahrik-i-Jadid, Anjuman Ahmadiyya (Pakistan) of whit he is the Chief Director. In that capacity he controls the Movement's variot Missions outside the Indo-Pak sub-continent and in this connection has visited mo^ of the European countries, the U.S.A., Middle East, Hong Kong, Thailand, Japai Philippines, some countries of West Africa and Malaysia as well as Indonesi,
Mirza Muzzafar Ahmad was a famous grandson of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad through Mirza Basheer-ud-Din Mahmud Ahmad and the daughter of Noorudin, Amtul Hai. He was born on 28 February 1913 and died on 23 July 2002 in Maryland. He was affectionately known as MM Ahmad, he was the former executive director and Vice President (#2 man in-charge) of the World Bank. He married to his first cousin, Amatul Qayyum (year unknown), they had no children, however, they seem to have adopted a nephew (Zahid Ahmad) this adopted son married a HINDU girl in the USA. Her name is Tazeen Ahmad, they had 2 children together, Muhammad and Marium.
Mirza Muzzafar Ahmad was given special treatment because he was an Ahmadi
As we know, the British loved working with Ahmadi’s and giving them key positions of trust. They seem to have hired Mirza Muzzafar Ahmad as a civil servant in the highly prestigious Indian Civil Service in 1939. Later, he went to Islamabad, Pakistan’s capital, where he served in a number of senior positions, including secretary of commerce, secretary of finance, and deputy chairman of the Planning Commission.
He moved to Lahore during partition and was hired by the government of Pakistan as secretary of finance in the Punjab.
At this juncture in his career, MM was arguably the most powerful civil servant in Pakistan, with supervisory authority over all three ministries. M M Ahmad’s contribution to the process of economic development was recognized by President Ayub Khan in a presidential address in 1967, celebrating 20 years of an independent Pakistan. When General Yahya Khan deposed President Ayub Khan and placed Pakistan under martial law, M M Ahmad was appointed adviser to the new president and given the rank of a federal minister. During M M Ahmad’s service, Pakistan underwent rapid industrialization and growth. This received acknowledgment both within Pakistan and amongst the international development community. MM’s success was attributable to his ability to assemble a highly capable team of economists, planners and engineers such as the late Dr Mahbub ul Haq, Sartaj Aziz and many others.
1971–he is almost murdered
On 9-15-1971, Muhammad Aslam Qureshi, who was an employee in the Capital Development Authority, he attacked MM Ahmadin an elevator with a knife. The attack was unsuccessful and MM Ahmad was safe. The president of Pakistan was out of the country and the Al-Furqan Magazine of rabwah reported that MM Ahmad, who was the acting president of Pakistan has been attacked (see Al-Furqan, 9-15-1971).
He moves to America permanently, settling in Potomac, Maryland and thus driving and controlling the USA Jamaat.
He retires from the World Bank and works exclusively for Ahmadiyya.
It is found out that Mirza Muzzafar Ahmad helped the Ahmadiyya Jamaat store money illegally in Panama. See here also.
He worked tirelessly for Ahmadiyya causes
He was known to challenge Ahmadi’s as follows:
“What have I done for my community today?”
Related Essay’s and links
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We found an interesting and informative article on the life and times of Mirza Muzzafar Ahmad. This article was written by Shahid Javed Burki, who was a colleague of Mirza Muzzafar Ahmad for many years. It was published in the Dawn, which is a popular Pakistan related newspaper.
MIRZA Muzaffar Ahmad — known mostly as MM to his friends and admirers — died in a hospital in suburban Washington on July 22. He had been unwell for several months not because of any disease. He was just weighed down by age and by his concern for Pakistan, a country he dearly loved and to the service of which he devoted his entire and extremely productive life.
MM was born on February 28, 1913, in Qadian, India. He was educated first at Government College, Lahore, and later in Britain’s London and Oxford Universities. He joined the Indian Civil Service — the ICS — in 1939. The 1939 “batch” was the last one to be recruited by the British to the premier administrative service. By recruiting Indians to the ICS, the British aimed to “Indianize” the administrative structure that was regarded as the “steel frame” in their rule of India. This process of “Indianization” was disrupted by the Second World War. When it resumed after the war was over it took a different form since the ICS was opened to the personnel of other services.
The ICS was dissolved in 1947 when the British left India. Its members were invited to opt for service in one of the two successor states — to serve either in India, a predominantly Hindu country, or to go to Pakistan, a country carved out specifically for the Muslim citizens of British India. Eighty one ICS officers, including MM Ahmad, opted for service in Pakistan. Those who chose to come to Pakistan formed the core of a new central service initially called the Pakistan Administrative Service. Later, the PAS was rechristened as the Civil Service of Pakistan, the CSP.
Most of this contingent of highly able and trained civil servants who opted for service in Pakistan were to play important roles in establishing the state of Pakistan. Most of them went to Karachi, the country’s first capital. MM chose instead to go to Lahore, the capital of the part of Punjab that was attached to Pakistan. Among the positions MM held in Lahore was that of secretary of finance. Later, he went to Islamabad, Pakistan’s second capital, where he served in a number of senior positions, including secretary of commerce, secretary of finance, and deputy chairman of the Planning Commission. When General Yahya Khan deposed President Ayub Khan and placed Pakistan under martial law, MM was appointed adviser to the new president and given the rank of a federal minister.
MM served in that capacity until the outbreak of the civil war between East and West Pakistan. He went to Washington soon after that fateful event and joined the World Bank’s board as executive director responsible for Pakistan and a number of other Muslim countries. Pakistan lost its seat on the Bank’s board when Bangladesh became independent and decided to join the constituency led by India. MM stayed on in Washington and was elected deputy executive secretary of the joint ministerial committee of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, better known as the Development Committee. He retired from that position in 1984.
I got to know MM Ahmad well over the years. Although I was 21 years his junior in the CSP, I had the opportunity to work with him on several occasions. The first time I came in close contact with him was in 1969 when the martial law government of General Yahya Khan decided to undo the “One Unit” of West Pakistan. This was a momentous decision, the full import of which was not recognized by the military government.
The creation of the “One Unit” of West Pakistan was a part of the delicate balance between political forces that dominated Pakistan after the country achieved independence. The task of constitution-making had been made difficult by the leaders of West Pakistan — especially those who belonged to Punjab — who were not prepared to accept any arrangement on the division of powers between the federal and provincial governments that would make East Pakistan the dominant force in the country’s political structure. That would have happened had the provinces of Pakistan been allowed representation in the national legislature on the basis of population. In that case East Pakistan, with more people than all the provinces and states of West Pakistan combined, would have gained the majority of seats in the national parliament.
This situation was not acceptable to Punjab. A compromise was reached on the basis of what came to be called the “parity formula” according to which the country was to have two federating units, East Pakistan and West Pakistan. Each unit was to have equal representation in the national legislature. This led to the creation of the One Unit of West Pakistan in 1956. In 1958, Pakistan promulgated its first constitution.
The parity formula survived the demise of the constitution of 1956 and the establishment of a new political structure under the constitution of 1962. However, the highly centralized political structure under the military government created a number of problems. President Ayub Khan totally dominated the federal government and Governors Amir Muhammad Khan of Kalabagh and Abdul Monem Khan ruled West and East Pakistan respectively with an equal amount of authority. Concentration of so much power in three pairs of hands did not sit well with the people. In East Pakistan resentment built up against Islamabad’s domination and the smaller provinces of West Pakistan were alienated by the highly authoritarian rule of Nawab of Kalabgh. On coming to power, Yahya Khan responded to these concerns by scrapping the “parity” arrangement between East and West Pakistan and by dissolving the West Pakistan One Unit.
The difficult task of dismantling the One Unit was entrusted to a committee of officials headed by MM Ahmad. MM represented Punjab while Ghulam Ishaq Khan represented the Frontier Province, A.G.N. Kazi, Sindh and Yusuf Achkzai Balochitsn. The committee’s secretariat had four officials: Zahur Azhar, Dr. Humayun Khan, Dr. Tariq Siddiqui and myself. The committee’s task was a complex one. It had not only to dismantle the One Unit arrangement but also to create four new provinces by merging the old princely states with the directly administered areas.
MM Ahmad was equal to the task. For several weeks with patience, dignity and intelligence — three distinguishing traits of his personality — he guided the ‘One Unit dissolution committee’, towards resolving all outstanding issues in time set by the Yahya government. The committee’s plan went into effect on July 1, 1970, when West Pakistan “One Unit” was dissolved and all power was transferred to the provinces of Balochistan, the North-west Frontier Province, Punjab and Sindh.
My second close association with MM occurred during the same period when he was entrusted with the delicate task of getting the governments of East and West Pakistan to accept the macroeconomic framework developed by the Planning Commission for the Fourth Five-Year Plan. The plan was to run for the period between 1970 and 1975. By the time the Planning Commission revealed its approach, the citizens of East Pakistan had been convinced that the remarkable economic performance of the western wing of the country was sustained by the resources garnered from their province. They wanted this bias to be corrected during the five years of the Fourth Plan.
Two panels of economists were set up, one chaired by Dr Pervez Hasan, West Pakistan’s Chief Economist, and the other by Professor Nurul Islam, a Bengali economist, to resolve the differences between the two provinces. Not surprisingly, the two panels arrived at different conclusions. Hasan’s panel did not reject the view that public sector expenditure had played a role in the rapid economic growth of the western province. However, it also emphasized the decisive part played by the private sector. The Bengali economists argued that much of West Pakistan’s better performance was the result of large public sector investments which had been financed by external capital flows which the central government had largely directed towards that province.
Once again, MM Ahmad stepped into the breach to resolve the dispute between the two groups of experts and the two provinces they represented. As the economic adviser to Governor Nur Khan of West Pakistan, I attended several meetings chaired by MM to develop a consensus between the two provinces of the country. He laboured hard to arrive at an agreement but did not succeed as the political temperature was constantly rising. In the fall of 1970, East Pakistan’s coastal areas were hit by a devastating cyclone that left a million people dead. The tardy response of the central government to this great human tragedy further soured relations between the two provinces. The rest, as they say, is history.
My closest association with MM occurred when, in 1981, I was made responsible for representing the World Bank on the secretariat of the Development Committee. MM at that point was the deputy executive secretary of the committee. The committee, straddling between the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, was charged by its members to improve understanding on a number of important issues between the governments of the developed and developing parts of the world. The beginning of the decade of the eighties saw many developing countries faced with difficult times. Much of Latin America was ravaged by the problem of debt incurred to sustain imports while the price of oil increased four-fold. World trade, recognized as an important source of growth for the developing world, was doing little for the commodity exporters of the developing world.
Official development assistance, once promised to increase steadily and significantly, had stagnated. The Development Committee’s agenda was getting long with difficult subjects being added constantly to it. MM played an extremely important role in helping the governments to understand that they had to work together to bring about sustained growth all over the world.
It soon became clear to us — to MM and myself — that we needed a strong developing country person to chair the committee and guide its deliberations. We turned to Ghulam Ishaq Khan who was at that time finance minister of Pakistan. Ishaq and MM were good friends and it was because of that friendship that the former agreed to contest the election of the chairmanship of the Development Committee. MM was instrumental in getting all the governments represented on the committee to agree to Ishaq Khan’s candidature. The Pakistani finance minister was elected by a unanimous vote. Helped by MM, Ishaq performed impressively in that position, winning the respect of both developed and developing countries. He was re-elected for a second term and continued in that position even after he left the finance ministry and became chairman of the Senate in Pakistan.
I offer these recollections to the readers of Dawn to celebrate the life of M. M. Ahmad, most of which was spent in the service of his country. MM gave all he had to Pakistan.
Be sure to read our writings on the Atif Mian controversy here. It seems that the Saudi government was unaware that Atif Mian was an Ahmadi, and invited him to this “International Conference on Islamic Banking and Finance” in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabia banned Ahmadi’s in the early 1970’s and encourages other Islamic countries to do the same. The Saudi embassy in Nigeria flatly refused to give Ahmadi’s visas in 1973.
Atif Mian visited Mecca in 2016
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