Watch my video on this herein. In 1920, it seems that Khwaja Kamaluddin was invited by the Dutch Empire to spread Ahmadiyya teachings in Indonesia (On 10-23-1920, Khwaja Kamaluddin was in the Dutch colony of Indonesia and arrived in Surabaya (see “Conversion to Ahmadiyya in Indonesia: Winning Hearts through Ethical and Spiritual Appeals” by Ahmad Najib Burhani, 2014).
Per Burhani, Khwaja Kamaluddin stayed in Dutch-Indonesia for 2 months and gave speeches (see this book, which mentions Kamal-uddin’s trip to Indonesia) in Surabaya and Batavia (Batavia was the capital of the Dutch East Indies. The area corresponds to present-day Jakarta, Indonesia).
Khwaja Kamaluddin was -in-charge of the only mosque in England and had been touring the British Empire and spreading Ahmadiyya beliefs (and not mentioning MGA specifically). This tour of Dutch-Indonesia wasn’t reported in any newspaper. Ahmadiyya beliefs and missionaries (Lahori’s and Qadiani’s) also made it to Dutch-Guyana (modern day Suriname), thus, the Dutch liked Ahmadiyya beliefs and wanted them spread to Muslims in their colonies.
In 1923, the Dutch colony of Indonesia officially sent 4 men to Qadian for missionary training. This is highly suspicious. These were: Maulwi Abu Bakr Ayub sahib, Maulwi Ahmad Nur-ud-din sahib, Maulwi Zani Halaan sahib and Haji Mahmood sahib. There whereabouts were unknown after 1923 (See Mirza Masroor’s Ahmad Friday sermon of 2-11-2011).
In 1924, the Lahori-Ahmadi’s sent 3 missionaries, Maulana Ahmad, Hafiz Muhammad Hasan Cheema and Mirza Wali Ahmad Baig (See Mujahid e Kabir). Due to certain reasons the Hafiz sahib stopped in Singapore. Maulana Ahmad was taken ill after arriving in Java and had to return to India after four months. This left Mirza Wali Ahmad Baig as the only Ahmadi missionary in all of Indonesia and he landed in Java. Mirza Wali Ahmad Baig stayed there till 1937. He seemed to have been the teachers of the famous Sukarno, who eventually became the leader of the Indonesian struggle for independence from the Dutch Empire. He was a prominent leader of Indonesia’s nationalist movement during the Dutch colonial period and spent over a decade under Dutch detention until released by the invading Japanese forces in World War II. Sukarno and his fellow nationalists collaborated to garner support for the Japanese war effort from the population, in exchange for Japanese aid in spreading nationalist ideas. Upon Japanese surrender, Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta declared Indonesian independence on 17 August 1945, and Sukarno was appointed as its president.
The Amir Jamaat-e-Ahmadiyya Indonesia and missionary in-charge
The Amir is a local indonesian, Abdul Basit Shahid. He has been the Amir since at least 2013.
The Missionary-in-Charge, Mirajuddin Shahid Sahib.
Qadiani-Ahmadiyya places of worship in Indonesia
–Ahmadiyya sources claim that in 1925, when Ahmadi missionaries landed, they were able to get a whole family to convert to Ahmadiyya, and took over their mosque. The mosque belongs to the Argadiraksa family. Baitur Rahim Mosque, Built: 1920, Capacity: 1000, Location: Singaparna, Tasikmalaya, Indonesia.
—Baitur Rahman, Bogor Indonesia. Capacity 500.
—Al Falah Mosque, Capacity: 100, Location: Bogor, Indonesia.
—Asy Syifa Mosque, Capacity: 50, Location: Bogor, Indonesia
—At Taufiq Mosque, Location: Bogor, Indonesia.
—Nusrat Jahan Mosque, Location: Semarang, Indonesia
—An Nur Mosque, Capacity: 700, Location: Manislor, Indonesia
—Al Fazl Mosque, Capacity: 200, Location: Bogor, Indonesia
—Baitul Anwar (see “Mosques Around the World).
—Baitul Hafiz, Built on 28 February 2020, Capacity: 200. Location: Bendungan, Wonosobo, Central Java, Indonesia.
Jl. Balikpapan I No.10, RT.2/RW.6, Petojo Utara, Kecamatan Gambir, Kota Jakarta Pusat, Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta 10130, Indonesia.
—Masjid Mubarak, shut down by the government, Jakarta, Indonesia. Sindangbarang too, maybe in Sindangbarang they have another mosque.
—-An Nasr Masjid, Built: ?, Capacity: 200, Location: Borneo, Indonesia
—Ahmadiyya mission house on Borneo island, Indonesia side. Jl. Dahlia Kebun Sayur No.7, Mawar, Kec. Banjarmasin Tengah, Kota Banjarmasin, Kalimantan Selatan 70112, Indonesia.
—Ahmadiyya Jamia. Mubarak Mushlikhuddin Sahib reports that Jamia Ahmadiyya Indonesia International held its Convocation Ceremony for Shahid and Mubashir classes on 10 August 2020 in Nasr Mosque. This event was a historic moment for Jamaat-e-Ahmadiyya Indonesia, as it was the first time that students completed the full Shahid course – a seven year course.
Lahori-Ahmadiyya places of worship
In October 1920, Khwaja Kamal-ud-Din, the leader of the splinter group Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement toured Southeast Asia. The reason for this tour is unknown. Nevertheless, he specifically went to the Dutch colony of Indonesia. This was the only time he ventured outside of the British government. We think that the Dutch had heard about Ahmadiyya and how it was being used to convert Muslims into well wishers of the British government and thus, the Dutch wanted some Ahmadi’s to come over. Khwaja Kamal-ud-Din seems to have had successfully managed to win confidence among some Indonesian Muslims. He delivered a number of speeches in Surabaya and Batavia which attracted headlines in several leading newspapers.
Per Ahmadiyya sources some random teacher read about Ahmadiyya and then sent a few of students to India (this story seems to be a lie). These Indonesians didn’t know the difference between Lahori and Qadiani-Ahmadi’s. On complying with their teachers advice, all three students set out separately and reunited in the north Indian city of Lucknow. Whilst in the city they began their education in Islamic studies at Madrasah Nizhamiyyah Darun Nadwah under the supervision of Abdul Bari-al Ansari. Feeling unsatisfied, and having recalled a lecture by Khwaja Kamal-ud-Din in Java, they soon set out towards his city, Lahore, over 500 miles north west of Lucknow, and encountered with members of the Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement, which at that time had already split with the main Ahmadiyya Muslim Community, still based in Qadian. Impressed by the Ahmadi teachings under the supervision of Maulana Abdus Sattar, and on the other hand, having discovered the split of the Lahori Ahmadis, they decided to travel to Qadian. Multiple theories abound as for the justification for this move. It has been suggested that the students desired to know more about the source of the teachings of Ahmadiyya and Mirza Ghulam Ahmad. However, a more popular opinion suggests that Abdus Sattar was himself convinced of the superiority of the main branch, the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community and was spiritually aligned to them.
Soon after their arrival, the three students decided to take oath of allegiance at the hands of Caliph Mirza Basheer-ud-Din Mahmood Ahmad and opted to continue their studies in Qadian. On invitation, a further 23 students from the Indonesian boarding school Sumatra Tawalib, arrived in Qadian to further pursue Islamic studies and having learnt of the Ahmadi teachings, they too converted to the Ahmadiyya movement.
Per Ahmadiyya only sources, it was in 1923 that 4 young Indonesian men came to British-India for religious education and found their way to Qadian. These were: Maulwi Abu Bakr Ayub sahib, Maulwi Ahmad Nur-ud-din sahib, Maulwi Zani Halaan sahib and Haji Mahmood sahib. The British government gave these 4 visa’s, however, they didn’t speak any Urdu and thus communication with Ahmadi’s at Qadian was impossible (See Mirza Masroor’s Ahmad Friday sermon of 2-11-2011).
In 1924, the caliph toured the Middle East and Europe. Having learnt this, a number of Indonesian students, whilst still studying in Qadian, desired that their caliph should also visit the East, in particular the Indonesian archipelago. In a formal speech delivered in Arabic to the caliph, by Haji Mahmud, a spokesman for the Indonesian students in Qadian, the students expressed this very desire. The caliph, assured them that he himself will not be able to visit Indonesia but will soon send a representative, a missionary, to the region.
In the summer of 1925, under the directive of the caliph, Rahmat Ali, a missionary of the Ahmadiyya movement, arrived in Tapaktuan, Aceh, the northern province of the Sumatra Island. With this, the foundation of the Ahmadiyya movement in Indonesia was laid. In the history of the Community, the three aforementioned students are renowned as the early pioneers of the Ahmadiyya movement in Indonesia. Through their pioneering efforts, and various missionaries of the Community, Ahmadiyya was to spread across Indonesia.
On October 2, 1925, with 13 members, under the leadership of Rahmat Ali, the first branch of the movement was established in Tapaktuan.
Discussions, lectures, and debates played a crucial role in the early progress of the Ahmadiyya movement in Indonesia. As soon as Rahmat Ali arrived in Tapaktuan, the first lecture he organized was on the death of Jesus, concerning which Ahmadi Muslims hold a distinctive theological perspective from mainstream Muslims and Christians. Many early converts to the Ahmadiyya movement are attributed to theological debates, including, but not limited to the death of Jesus. However, many conversions required more than satisfactory arguments, and it was not solely debates that attracted people. The charisma, attitude and the ‘spiritual power’ of the missionaries appealed to the public. The patience exemplified by the Ahmadi debaters in face of abusive criticisms and humiliation played an important role (See Burhani).
A few months later, in 1926, Rahmat Ali moved to Padang, in the west coast of Sumatra and established the second branch of the movement. Following this, several branches of the movement were established all over the Island.
Mirza Wali Ahmad Baig established a Jamaat for the Lahori-Ahmadi, we don’t know what this means.
Since the earliest days of the Ahmadiyya Islamic movement in Indonesia numerous fatwas have been issued by Indonesian religious organizations. One of the earliest to issue a fatwa was the Sunni Indonesian movement Muhammadiyah, which issued its fatwa in 1929, declaring anyone who does not believe in the finality of Muhammad as infidel. Although the fatwa does not explicitly mention Ahmadiyya, nor Ahmadi Muslims, it is believed that it was directed at the Ahmadiyya movement. It is to be noted however that Muhammadiyah initially maintained cordial relations with the small Lahore Ahmadiyya group, so much so that it was rumoured that the two groups were going to merge.
In 1931, Rahmat Ali moved to Batavia (known today as Jakarta, the capital of Indonesia), in the northwest coast of Java Island.
A few years after the arrival of Rahmat Ali, a committee Komite Mencari Hak (committee for finding the truth) was assembled by Tahar Sultan Marajo, a non-Ahmadi Muslim in the Pasar Gadang locality of Padang, western Sumatra, in order to bring Ahmadi missionaries and orthodox clerics together to debate on religious matters. However, the debate did not ensue as the clerics did not appear. According to Ahmadi reports, some of the committee members converted to Ahmadiyya. Some of the most famous debates, in the early years of the movement, between Ahmadi Muslims of Indonesia and the orthodox clergy was with Persatuan Islam, an Indonesian Islamic organization founded in 1923. The debates were commonly held in Bandung and Batavia, both of which lie in the western portion of Java. The first debate with Persatuan Islam was on the death of Jesus, attended by over a 1,000 people and lasted over three days during April 1933. A second debate discussing wider topics, was held in September of the same year, and was witnessed by over 2,000 people (See Burhani).
Mirza Wali Ahmad Baig got translated Maulana Muhammad Ali’s Translation of Holy Quran into Dutch in 1934. He then taught in many schools in Indonesia and among his students was 1st president of Indonesia, Mr. Sukarno (See page 22).
Although the Community had established a number of branches throughout the country, it was not until a conference was held in December 1935 that the organisational structure of the Community was established. R. Muhyiddin was elected as the first president of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community in Indonesia. The Indonesian branch adopted the name Ahmadiyah Qadian Departemen Indonesia, which was later changed to Anjuman Ahmadiyah Departemen Indonesia in June 1937. In late 1949, after the Indonesian Revolution, the name was once again changed to Jemaat Ahmadiyah Indonesia (JAI), thereby emphasizing the organizational nature of the Community and its connection to the worldwide Ahmadiyya Muslim Community.
In a separate development, the Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement, which had split from the main Ahmadiyya Muslim Community in 1914, sent its first missionary Mirza Wali Ahmad Baig in 1926. Although the Lahore Ahmadiyya was established in the country on December 10, 1928, it was not legally registered in the country (as Gerakan Ahmadiyah Indonesia ‘GAI’) until the following September. Due to a lack of effort produced by the Lahori Ahmadis in seeking converts in Indonesia, and into the faith in general, the group failed to attract a sizeable following. In particular, Mira Wali Ahmad Baig was the last missionary of the group, in contrast to the main Ahmadiyya movement, which had sent missionary after missionary to Indonesia. Due to the organizational strength adopted in overseas missionary activity, during the era of the second Caliphate, and for various financial and theological reasons, the main Ahmadiyya branch became increasingly successful in gaining converts to their interpretation of Islam. Shielded by Indonesia’s Constitution, which guaranteed religious freedom, the Ahmadi Community continued to grow, whilst facing little persecution up until the fall of the Suharto government.
In 1935, local members of the Indonesian Ulema Council in East Sumatra issued their first warning of the ‘heretical’ status of the Ahmadiyya. However it was not until 1965 that this position was formalized through a fatwa. Having produced little influence, the national body of the Indonesian Ulema Council took up the issue and in 1980 issued its first fatwa against the Ahmadiyya movement, although it excluded the splinter Lahore Ahmadiyya group from this ordeal. It declared Ahmadi Muslims outside the pale of Islam, “deviant” and that the government is to give ear to the Council in its dealings with Ahmadi Muslims. As a result, the Ministry of Religious Affairs issued a statement declaring the Ahmadiyya movement as a ‘deviant’ sect. However the New Order government of the second President of Indonesia, Suharto, gave little support in the implementation of the final part of the fatwa through actual state policy.
Mirza Wali Ahmad Baig returned to India from Indonesia.
The Lahore Ahmadiyya movement, also known as Gerakan Ahmadiyyah Indonesia (GAI) in Indonesia, had only 400 members up until the 1940s. Due to a lack of effort produced by the Lahori Ahmadis in seeking converts in Indonesia, and into the faith in general, the group failed to attract a sizeable following. By the 1970s the group’s membership stood between 500 and 1000 people. In the 1980s, it fell to 708 members.
By the 1970s the group’s membership stood between 500 and 1000 people. In the 1980s, it fell to 708 members.
Jamia Ahmadiyya established in March 1982.
Per Ahmadiyya sources only, “Mosques Around the World”, Syarif Ahmad Lubis was the Amir, he was a local indonesian. Mahmood Ahmad Cheema was the missionary-in-charge (a Pakistani).
Mirza Tahir Ahmad visited. He opened a new Ahmadiyya place of worship. Masjid Baitul Mujib.
With the fundamentalist Islamist organizations still unsatisfied, the Indonesian Ulema Council were pressured to issue another fatwa 25 years later, in July 2005. This time, the council additionally charged Ahmadi Muslims of apostasy. The fatwa, entitled Aliran Ahmadiyah (Ahmadiyya branch), cited a 1985 fatwa by the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation on Ahmadi Muslims and placed itself above the Indonesian government with respect to its treatment towards Ahmadi Muslims. It demanded that the fatwa be enforced. The fatwa ordered the government to impede the spread of Ahmadi teachings among the Muslim populations, suspend the organizational activity of the movement and seal off all public Ahmadi buildings, such as mosques. This fatwa, accompanied with the fall of the Suharto government a few years back in 1998, played a pivotal role in providing ideological justification and an open platform for the opposition and the persecution of Ahmadi Muslims all over the country. In the Post-Suharto era, the Yudhoyono government has generally overlooked the hostilities by radical Muslim groups against Ahmadi Muslims.
The Qadiani-Khalifa responds to this controversy in a Friday Sermon on the 8th February.
In a brutal attack, 3 Ahmadi’s are killed live on video.
Indonesian Police shutting down Ahmadiyya Mosque in Tasikmalaya, West Java.
Read—Understranding the oppressed, A Study of Ahmadiyya and their strategies for overcoming adversity in Contemporary Indonesia by Aleah Connely (2016)
Indonesia closes down Ahmadiyya Mosque in Depok.
Jamia in Indonesia graduates its first class.
_____________________________________________________________________________________________Links and Related Essay’s
- 75 Tahun Jemaat Ahmadiyah Indonesia” (in Indonesian). Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved March 28, 2015.
- Philip Shishkin (February 13, 2011). “The Persecution of Indonesia’s Ahmadi Muslims”. Retrieved March 29, 2015.
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